Concepts




Daily wage earners come under the scope of the forest industry collective agreement. The earnings of a daily wage earner are mainly based on the actual working days. A daily wage earner can perform both work for which he/she is compensated daily on the basis of working days and work for which he/she is compensated hourly on the basis of working hours. Such work can be performed for several periods during a month. In addition, a daily wage earner may have earnings for working hours not worked.

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Dangerous goods are substances that may cause damage to people, property or the environment due to their corrosive, flammable, explosive, spontaneously combustible, toxic, oxidising, radioactive, biological, water reactive or other nature.

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The data supplier unit in the statistics on manufacturing commodities is an enterprise or an establishment of an enterprise, whose main activity is manufacturing (B Mining and quarrying or C Manufacturing). Thus, even establishments of non-industrial enterprises engaged in industrial activity are included in the inquiry.

The enterprises and establishments of the inquiry on production have been selected so that the representativeness requirement imposed by the EU's PRODCOM Regulation, or at least 90 per cent of the production value of each manufacturing industry must be included in the statistics. Thus, information on manufacturing production is, as a rule, collected from all establishments of enterprises with at least ten persons. In addition, in some manufacturing industries the inquiry also includes some smaller establishments of enterprises in order to fulfil the EU's representativeness criteria. The frame of the inquiry, the targeted enterprises and the sample are described in more detail in the quality description of the statistics under 2. Methodological description of statistical survey (only in Finnish).

Data on materials and supplies, their purchases and total use are inquired with a separate form from all manufacturing establishments of enterprises with at least 20 persons. The material and supply data reported by data providers are not as comprehensive as production data anyway because the filling in instructions of material and supply data requests to report at least 80 per cent of purchases and 100 per cent of total use for the titles in which total use is inquired. So at least the most important materials and supplies used in production during the calendar year are collected from the units supplying the data.

Material and supply data are currently only collected for uneven statistical reference years starting from the statistical reference year 2013. Thus, the first statistical reference year that was skipped was 2014.



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In the Finnish Travel survey, a day cruise usually refers to a round trip by boat/ferry outside the territorial waters of Finland cross the Gulf of Finland in the direction of Estonia, or cross the Gulf of Bothnia in the direction of Sweden. The duration of a day cruise is less than 20 hours with no overnights either on board or in the destination country. The departure and the return take place during the same calendar day. A day cruise may or may not include a visit ashore in the destination country. By purpose day cruises are broken down to leisure cruises or business/professional cruises, e.g. seminars on board.

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The working time starts and ends between 6 am and 6 pm.

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The days on which the respondent had been participating in adult education and training (i.e. receiving instruction, etc.) during the preceding 12 months are counted as his/her days of participation. This need not necessarily be the total duration of the course or teaching. The figure does not include travel to and from the place where the course was held, nor any time spent at home on preparation or exercises. One day of participation or education is taken as lasting six hours.

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Statistics on deaths are based on data derived from the Population Register Centre's Population Information System maintained by local register offices. People who lived permanently in Finland at the time of their death are entered in the statistics on deaths in Finland. Death certificates are used at Statistics Finland for compiling cause-of-death statistics. The number of deaths in the population statistics differs somewhat from the figure given in the statistics on causes of death. The difference is caused by that the vital statistics do not contain deaths registered as deaths after the compilation time of the statistics (the end of the following year's January).

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Debentures are bonds with a lower priority than that of the issuer's other commitments.

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Zero-interest bearer instruments issued by asset management companies.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Debt securities eligible as collateral in central bank monetary policy operations.

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Debtor in enforcement refers to the respondent in the enforcement of a payment obligation. The debtor in enforcement can be a natural or legal person.

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Debts charged on a source of income include debts attributable to farming and forestry as well as to trade and business activities.

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A decedent's estate refers to the assets and liabilities of a deceased person prior to the division of the estate. Heirs, meaning parties to the estate, belong to the same legal form.

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All expenses incurred in acquiring or maintaining agricultural income are deductible, inter alia:
- cash wages paid to those who work on the farm;
- expenses for acquisition of seeds, fertilizers, soil improvement and plant, protection compounds, fodder, fuels and lubricants as well as electrical power for use on the farm;
- expenses for acquisition of livestock for use on the farm;
- expenses for acquisition and renovation of buildings and constructions on the farm, machines, tools and appliances used on the farm, as well as for pipe draining, bridges, dams and similar equipment;
- expenses for livestock inspections, veterinary medicine services, soil fertility analyses, etc.;
- insurance premiums paid for buildings and other agricultural assets on the farm;
- expenses for repair and maintenance of buildings and construction on the farm, as well as machines, tools, appliances, ditches, bridges, fences, roads, etc. used on the farm;
- expenses for lighting and heating, etc. in buildings on the farm;
- the stumpage value of timber from the farm's own forest for use on the farm for purposes other than construction and repair of buildings and constructions used in farm production;
- rents and other compensations for agricultural land, buildings, machines, tools and appliances as well as other production equipment;
- the part not written off in taxation of the acquisition expense for property transferred by the taxpayer to agriculture from another income source, or such higher amount which has been deemed to be the taxable sales price in that income source;
- real estate tax, to the extent that it pertains to property used on the farm.

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A default prisoner is a person serving a conversion sentence in lieu of an unpaid fine. A conversion sentence is passed for a person sentenced to a fine if efforts to collect the fine have been unsuccessful. The main rule is that two unpaid day fines correspond to imprisonment for one day. When passing a conversion sentence for a penalty payment, imposed as a lump sum, every EUR 20 corresponds to imprisonment for one day. A conversion sentence shall be passed for at least four days and at most 90 days. A summary penal fee or a fine passed for a breach of the peace may not be converted to imprisonment.

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The party against whom a case is brought. The Finnish term "vastaaja" (defendant) was earlier used only in civil matters and in criminal matters concerning minor offences, but it can now be used in all civil and criminal matters.

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Deferred tax assets and liabilities arising from timing differences and other temporary differences.

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Degree of urbanisation refers to the proportion of people living in localities or urban settlements among the population of a municipality whose place of residence can be defined by coordinates. Before the 2000 census and locality delimitation the degree of urbanisation was calculated by proportioning the population living in localities to the total population of the municipality, which also included the persons without coordinates (e.g. homeless and institutional population). Since the 2000 census the institutional population with coordinates has been included in the population living in localities if the institution belongs to a locality or forms a locality on its own.

The degree of urbanisation is expressed in decimals, separated by a decimal point.

The degree of urbanisation is calculated annually, when the population of the year concerned is combined to the localities of the latest delimitation of localities.

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A driving licence is delivered to a person who fulfils the set age and health criteria and has a certificate that is no more than three months old from a passes driving test. The right to drive starts when a driving licence is delivered to its recipient. Driving licence proper is issued by the police, short-term driving licence by the examiner of the driving test. When a new driving licence is delivered, a driving licence previously issued in Finland or abroad must be surrendered to the police or to the driving test examiner.

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The value of commodities and services delivered during one month.

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Deliveries of vessel spare parts and supplies, vessel fuel and lubricants, goods meant to be sold to passengers on vessels and to be consumed there by passengers or the crew for vessels and aircraft in professional international traffic.

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Population structure is measured with the so-called economic dependency ratio which gives the numbers of persons unemployed or outside the labour force per one employed persons.

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Deposits are fixed-term or redeemable immediately on demand. They can be used to make payments, with no charges or limitations related to their use. Receivables in cash also belong to deposits. Information on interbank deposits needed for BOP purposes is derived from MFI balance sheet statistics. Interbank deposits are short-term by nature and large by volume and highly volatile.

As a result of the new statistical standards (ESA 2010), the line between deposits and loans changes so that there can no longer be loans between monetary financial institution (MFIs) - items previously recorded as loans between MFIs will now be recorded as deposits.

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The depreciation rate describes how much of the capital stock is used up during the year. In productivity surveys, consumption rates are specific for industries and capital good types. Consumption of fixed capital represents the amount of fixed assets used up during the period under consideration. Consumption is the result of normal wear and tear and foreseeable obsolescence, including a provision for losses of fixed assets as a result of accidental damage, which can be insured against.

Consumption of fixed capital should be distinguished from the depreciation shown in business accounts. It refers to the amount of fixed assets used up during the period under consideration. It should be estimated on the basis of the stock of fixed assets and the probable average economic life of the different capital goods.

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Depreciation, amortisation and impairment of tangible and intangible assets include 1) depreciations according to plan, based on the passage of time, and 2) impairment write-downs based on a probable permanent decrease in the asset's market value.

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Premiums paid for derivative instruments, including positive fair values of derivative instruments included among assets.

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Detention is a disciplinary punishment for a soldier or other person subject to Chapter 45 of the Criminal Code (Criminal Code, Chapter 6, Section 1). Detention can be passed only by a court in a procedure as intended in Sections 5 and 6 of the Military Court Procedure Act and it is sentenced for at least one and at most 30 days (Act on military disciplinary procedure and crime prevention in defence forces 255/2014).

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Direct foreign owner is a non-resident enterprise with a direct holding of over 50 per cent of the voting rights of a resident enterprise. Cf. Direct foreign parent.

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Direct foreign parent is a non-resident enterprise with a direct holding of over 50 per cent of the voting rights of a resident parent enterprise. Cf. Direct foreign owner.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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In the Enterprise Group Register, direct relationship describes the direct ownership and/or control relationship between two enterprises belonging to the same group.

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Fees and payments to outside training providers, payments or subsistence allowances for travel, accommodation, meals and allowances, labour costs of trainers, costs of premises, equipment and materials.

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Financial assets and liabilities are netted in direct investments data according to the directional principle by the direction of the control//influence between the direct investor and direct investment enterprise. Direct investments to Finland describe the capital that a foreign investor has invested directly in an enterprise located in Finland under the investors' control or influence. Direct investments abroad describe the capital that a Finnish investor has invested directly in an enterprise located abroad under the investors' control or influence. Reverse investments, or financial assets of the direct investment enterprise from direct investors, and investments between affiliates are taken into account in the data according to the directional principle. The financial assets and liabilities of affiliates whose ultimate control is located in Finland are netted and recorded as outward direct investments. Correspondingly, the financial assets and liabilities of affiliates whose ultimate control is located abroad are netted and recorded as inward direct investments. Data on direct investments according to the directional principle are published in the statistics on Foreign direct investments. Extended directional principle refers to the directional principle applied under the new statistical standards (BPM6/BD4).

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Disabled include persons aged 15 to 64 not in the labour force who due to long- term illness or disability are not working or studying. Those on disability pensions not belonging to the labour force are also classified as disabled.

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A disciplinary fine is a disciplinary punishment for a soldier or other person subject to Chapter 45 of the Criminal Code (Criminal Code, Chapter 6, Section 1). A disciplinary fine is imposed for at least one day and for at most thirty days. The monetary amount of the disciplinary fine is one-fifth of the average daily earnings of the person being fined, however at least equal to the highest daily allowance of a person performing military duty under the Conscription Act. (Act on military discipline procedure and crime prevention in defence forces 255/2014).

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Disciplinary punishments for soldiers and other persons subject to Chapter 45 of the Criminal Code are reprimand, extra duties, warning, confinement to barracks, disciplinary fine and detention. When applying to other persons not subject to Chapter 45 of the Criminal Code the provision decreeing as sanction a disciplinary punishment, they are sentenced to a fine instead of a disciplinary punishment.

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In the statistics on discontinuation of education discontinuation refers to discontinuation of post-comprehensive school education leading to a qualification.

Data concerning discontinuation of education are obtained by examining the situation of students having attended education in September XXXX in September XXXX+1. If a person has not continued education or obtained a qualification during this period, he/she is counted as having discontinued education.

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Persons outside the labour force who would like gainful work and would be available for work within a fortnight, but who have not looked for work actively in the past four weeks are counted as persons in disguised unemployment. The reasons for disguised unemployment are giving up searching for a job or other reasons, such as studies, caring for children or health reasons.

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Dismissal from office is a special penalty for a public official. A public official can be dismissed from office if he or she is sentenced to life imprisonment or to imprisonment for a fixed period of at least two years and the offence demonstrates that the sentenced person is unsuitable to serve as a public official. A public official sentenced to imprisonment for a period of less than two years can be dismissed from office if the offence indicates that he or she is particularly unsuitable to serve as a public official. The dismissal comprises the office or functions the sentenced person holds at the time when the sentence was passed. Dismissal from office intended in the penal provisions of Chapter 11 or 40 of the Criminal Code comprises the office in which the offence was committed. (Criminal Code, Chapter 2, Sections 7 and 10).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Households' disposable money income includes monetary income items and benefits in kind connected to employment relationships. Money income does not include imputed income items, of which the main one is imputed rent.

The formation of disposable money income can be described as follows:

+ wages and salaries
+ entrepreneurial income
+ property income (without imputed rent)
-----------------------------------------------
= factor income
+ current transfers received (without imputed rent)
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= gross money income
– current transfers paid
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= disposable money income

When current transfers paid are deducted from gross money income, the remaining income is the household's disposable money income.

The primary income concept used in the income distribution statistics is household's disposable money income according to international recommendations, in which case sales profits and taxes paid on them do not belong to the scope of the income concept. Following international recommendations, they are treated as a memorandum item outside the income concept.

The concept of disposable money income in the total statistics on income distribution differs from disposable money income in the income distribution statistics. As a conceptual difference, the income concept of the total statistics on income distribution includes taxable realised capital gains. For practical reasons, the total statistics on income distribution do not include the majority of interest income and current transfers received and paid between households (e.g. child maintenance support). Real property tax is not deducted in the total statistics on income distribution either.

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Distance work refers to paid work that is done outside the actual workplace - such as at home, summer cottage or when travelling on the train - so that it has been agreed upon with the employer. Distance work generally involves use of information technology. Distance work is in its nature such that it could also be performed at place of work. For example, the work of a telephone installer or messenger is not considered distance work. Work arrangements independent of time and place are essential for distance work. Partial distance working is also counted as distance work.

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Heat generated by power plants, heating boilers or heating plants that is transmitted through a district heating network to heat buildings and produce hot water.

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The divorce statistics are based on data on granted decrees of divorce transmitted to the Population Register Centre by courts of law. The statistics also include cases where a permanent resident of Finland is granted a divorce by a foreign court. If the divorce is granted abroad, it must be reported to the register keeper for registration of divorce. Exceptions are divorces granted to Finnish citizens in Sweden, on which the Swedish register keeper notifies the Finnish counterpart directly.

A divorce granted to a Finnish citizen abroad usually requires validation by the Helsinki Court of Appeal before registration. Divorce decisions given in the Nordic Countries and in the EU countries as of 1 March 2001 can be registered without validation.

As of 1980 'divorces' refer to the divorces of females permanently resident in Finland, unless otherwise indicated.

The amendment to the Marriage Act (411/1987), effective from 1 January 1988, simplified divorce proceedings. Divorce figures began to rise towards the end of 1988, when the first divorces (after a reconsideration period of six months) became effective under the new legislation. The Marriage Act no longer has regulations on 'cancellation of marriage' or 'nullification of marriage'. Before the new act came into force in 1988 these were in separate groups, now among divorces.



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Statistics compiled on domestic films include films made as wholly Finnish productions, as well as international co-productions having a Finnish majority producer. International co-productions having a foreign majority producer and a Finnish minority producer are not considered domestic films.

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Value index of sales of goods and services produced and sold in Finland.

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Domestic tourism comprises the activities of residents of a given country travelling to and staying in places inside their residential country, but outside their usual environment for not more than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business or other purposes.

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A domestic trip is a trip made by a resident of a given country within his/her residential country, and outside his/her usual environment. The maximum duration of trip is 12 consecutive months.

The definition of domestic trip is derived from the World Tourism Organization's (WTO) definitions for 'Domestic tourism' and 'Domestic visitor'.

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Domestic turnover refers to the volume of domestic taxable sales in the payment control data of the Tax Administration. In addition to domestic sales, the volume of taxable sales includes own use of (construction)services.

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Waste originating from the consumption of households. Waste generated outside the dwelling or its surrounds but produced by the household, such as waste motor oil left at the garage in connection with oil change of a motor car, is not regarded as domestic waste.

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An accident in which the driver of a motor vehicle has been proven (by a blood test or breathalyser reading exceeding 0.5 per mille) or is suspected on strong grounds to have been under the influence of alcohol at the time of the accident.

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Total number of kilometres driven by a vehicle or a specified subgroup during a certain time period, usually one year.

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A driving ban is issued by the police or district court. A driving ban issued by the district court is almost without exception preceded by a temporary driving ban ordered by a police officer.

The district court must impose a driving ban on a driver of a motor-driven vehicle in case the driver is found guilty of the following offences: aggravated endangering of traffic safety (Criminal Code, Chapter 23, Section 2), drunken driving (Criminal Code, Chapter 23, Section 3), or transport offence of hazardous materials (Criminal Code, Chapter 44, Section 13).

The district court may impose a driving ban on a driver of a motor-driven vehicle for at most five years. A driving ban is imposed on a driver guilty of drunken driving or transport offence of hazardous materials for at least one month and those guilty of aggravated endangerment of traffic safety or aggravated drunken driving for at least three months. (Driving Licence Act 386/2011).

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The driver of a motor vehicle must possess a driving licence issued by the police. The granting of the licence is subject to approved pass of a driving test and fulfilment of set age and health requirements. In addition to personal details, new driving licences also contain the name of the issuing police unit, date of issue of the licence, its administrative number, date of expiry, class and special conditions (concerning e.g. wearing of spectacles).

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A motor-driven vehicle other than a small-capacity moped or one intended to be steered on foot may only be driven by a person with an appropriate licence to drive a vehicle belonging to the class concerned. The driving licence classes are: (M) mopeds, (A) motorcycles, (A1) motorcycles with a cylinder capacity of 123 cc or less and output capacity of 11 kW or less, (B) passenger cars and vans with a gross mass of 3,500 kg or under, (C) lorries and other vehicles with a gross mass of > 3,500 kg and passenger capacity of no more than eight persons in addition to the driver, (C1) lorries and other vehicles with a gross mass of > 3,500 kg but no more than 7,500 kg and passenger capacity of no more than eight persons in addition to the driver, (D) coaches and other vehicles with a passenger capacity of more than eight persons, (D1) coaches and other vehicles with a passenger capacity of more than eight but not more than 16 persons, (E) vehicle combinations and (T) tractors.

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In calculating drug-related deaths, use is made of a classification compiled by the EU's European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) (Selection B). According to it, cases where the underlying cause of death is drug psychosis, accidental poisoning, intentional poisoning, and poisoning by undetermined intent are calculated as drug-related deaths. Drugs included in the EMCDDA classification primarily refer to opioids and cannabis and its derivatives, other hallucinogens and psychostimulants suitable for abuse, such as amphetamine and its derivatives (The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ICD-10: categories F110-F112, F120-F122, F140-F142, F150-F152, F160-F162, F190-F199, X41+T436, X42+T400-T409, X61+T436, X62+T400-T409, Y11+T436, Y12+T400-T409). The cases have been calculated in accordance with WHO's recommendation based on the substance judged as most influential. In many cases, it is a question of multiple substance poisoning where the person has also digested alcohol and/or psy-chopharmacons, for example.

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The consumption expenditure groups of the Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose (COICOP) are divided in accordance with the principles of the system of national accounts into services (S), nondurable goods (ND), durable goods (D) and semi-durable goods (SD).

The difference between nondurable goods and durable goods is based on whether the goods can be used only once, or repeatedly or continuously during a period of over one year. Durable goods, such as cars, fridges, washing machines and televisions, also have a relatively high purchase price. Semi-durable goods differ from durable goods in that their expected service life, although over one year, is often considerably shorter and their purchase price lower.

Statistics Finland's COICOP handbook can be browsed on the Internet at www.tilastokeskus.fi/tk/tt/luokitukset/popup/coicop.pdf (Handbooks / Statistics Finland, 41).

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Duration of trip refers to the time spent during a visit measured from the standpoint of the generating country or place. A trip begins when leaving home and ends when returning home. By duration trips are classified into two main categories: same-day visits and overnight trips. The maximum duration for overnight trips is 12 consecutive months. The maximum duration for same-day visits is less than 24 hours, so that departure and return takes place within the same calendar day and no nights are spent during the trip.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Dwelling density is the ratio between the size of the dwelling and the number of persons living in it. Dwelling size is expressed either as the number of rooms or as the floor area of the dwelling.

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Dwelling units are classified according to their occupancy status into dwellings permanently occupied, dwellings temporarily occupied and dwellings not in residential use:

- A dwelling is considered permanently occupied if according to the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre it is permanently occupied by one or more people.
- A dwelling is considered temporarily occupied if according to the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre it is occupied by temporary but not permanent residents.
- A dwelling is not in residential use if according to the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre it is not occupied by either permanent or temporary residents.

The Population Information System of the Population Register Centre's buildings and dwellings data include details on units that in reality are not in residential use or that are incorrectly registered. Such dwellings are not included in the dwelling stock statistics in cases where it has been possible to infer that they are errors or that they should be removed on the basis of other information.

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The dwelling population comprises those persons who according to the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre resided permanently in dwellings on 31 December. Persons permanently institutionalised, living in residential homes and abroad and homeless people are not included in the dwelling population. Likewise, persons living in buildings classified as residential homes whose living quarters do not meet the definition of dwelling, are not included.

The basic family population differs from the dwelling population in that it also includes those living in residential homes.

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Jaa