Concepts




HRSTE personnel (human resources in science and technology - education, highly educated) comprise employees who have at least the lowest level of tertiary degree.

Tertiary degrees refer to degrees obtained at the following levels of education (Statistics Finland: Classification of Education, Handbooks 1, Helsinki):
5 Lowest level of tertiary education
6 Lower-degree level of tertiary education
7 Higher-degree level of tertiary education
8 Doctorate or equivalent level of tertiary education

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A hard-to-fill vacancy is an open job vacancy during the reference period, that an employer has had difficulty in filling (subjective opinion). For example, despite active measures there have been no applicants or the applicants have not been sufficiently qualified or suitable for the job in question. Despite the difficulties an employee may have been found to fill the vacancy, or the vacancy may have remained unfilled.

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Hazardous waste refers to waste whose chemical or other properties deviate from those of other waste so that it can endanger or cause harm to health or the environment and therefore has to be made harmless or recovered according to specific rules.

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In the statistics on teachers occupational category 12291 Education managers and headmasters and headmistresses includes only headmasters and headmistresses (not school directors).

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Total energy consumption in manufacturing is calculated from data on net purchases (purchased/received - sold/delivered) of district heat and heat/steam used in industrial processes, i.e. heat obtained from outside for own use.

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Figures describing the annual heating requirement in different localities have been calculated for indoor temperature of 17°C assuming that heating is stopped in spring when outdoor temperature rises above 10°C and started in autumn when it falls below 12°C. Figures for heating degree days are produced by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. These statistics have been compiled by using the heating degree day figure for Jyväskylä to describe the average heating requirement for the whole of Finland.

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Heating fuel or source of heat refers to the main fuel or energy source used in heating a building. There are also data on the heating fuel of dwellings. Data on the heating fuel have been obtained from the Population Information System, which receives them from municipal building supervision authorities.

Information about change in heating fuel is mainly transmitted to the Population Information System only if such alterations have been done to a building which require a building permit.

The classification is as follows:
- district heating
- oil
- gas
- coal
- electricity
- wood
- peat
- ground heating
- other, unknown

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Heating system refers to the main method of heating used in the heating of a building. There are also data on the heating fuel of dwellings. Data on the heating fuel have been obtained from the Population Information System, which receives them from municipal building supervision authorities by way of building project notices. Information about change in the heating system is only transmitted to the Population Information System if such alterations have been done to a building which require a building permit.

The classification is as follows:
- central heating, water
- central heating, air
- direct electric heating
- stove heating
- no fixed heating installation
- unknown.

In a water central heating system, the building is heated with circulating water, and in an air central heating system with circulating air. In direct electric heating the building is heated with the aid of a fixed radiator, etc. connected directly to the electricity network.
In stove heating, heating takes place by burning wood or other fuels in a fireplace (stove) that stores heat. Stove heating also includes electric heating reservoirs, separate fixed oil heaters and heatpreserving fireplaces. Stoves used for heating saunas are not regarded as heating equipment.

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An offence not reported to the police and hence not registered as crime.

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High-technology products are products for which research and development accounts for at least four per cent of industry turnover. The main product categories are as follows:
- Aerospace
- Computers and office machinery
- Electronics and telecommunications
- Pharmaceuticals
- Scientific instruments
- Electrical machinery
- Chemicals
- Non-electrical machinery
- Armaments

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An employment relationship in which the employee works through an agency providing or hiring labour force.

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Hitas is a regulation system for the price and quality level of dwellings built on rented plots owned by the City of Helsinki. Hitas dwellings refer to the dwellings subject to the regulation system in question.

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Holding corporations are institutional units whose main function is to control and direct a group of subsidiaries.

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Holding gains and losses result from changes in the prices of assets. They occur on all kinds of financial and non-financial assets, and on liabilities. Holding gains and losses accrue to the owners of assets and liabilities purely as a result of holding the assets or liabilities over time, without transforming them in any way.

Holding gains and losses measured on the basis of current market prices are called nominal holding gains and losses. These may be decomposed into neutral holding gains and losses, reflecting changes in the general price level, and real holding gains and losses, reflecting changes in the relative prices of assets.

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An employed person's holiday, weekend, mid-day holiday and other days off during the survey week.

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The number of holiday residents by municipality has been counted from the total number of persons in the household-dwelling units of the free-time residence owners. If the same person owns more than one freetime residence in the same municipality, the persons in that household-dwelling unit have been taken into account only once. If the household-dwelling unit owns a freetime residence in more than one municipality the said persons have been counted as holiday residents in both municipalities.

When counting the number of holiday residents it has not been possible to take account of the free-time residences owned by death estates or foreigners, or of those in joint ownership.

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The municipality registered as the municipality of domicile or an enterprise.

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Home-makers are those outside the labour force who are looking after their own household. Homemaking refers to unpaid work at one's own home, such as child care, food preparation or cleaning.

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Homeless people include those living out of doors, in various temporary shelters and night shelters and institutions due to lack of a dwelling (e.g. shelters, nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals, institutions for mentally handicapped). Also released prisoners with no known dwelling are included in homeless people. In addition, the homeless comprise those living temporarily with friends and relatives and itinerants.

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A homepage here is defined as an enterprise's own Internet homepages or its section in the homepages of a group. Homepages do not refer for example to publication of an enterprise's contact details on various company and address lists.

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A bedroom is a unit formed by one room or group of rooms constituting an indivisible rental whole in an accommodation establishment (e.g. a hotel) or dwelling. Rooms may be single, double or multiple depending on whether they are equipped permanently to sleep one, two or several people. Apartments are a special type of room. They consist of one or more rooms and have a kitchen unit and own bathroom and toilet. Cabins, cottages, huts, bungalows, villas and summerhouses can be treated like bedrooms and apartments, i.e. to be let as a single unit.

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The earnings of an hourly wage earner are mainly based on the hours actually worked. In addition, an hourly wage earner may have earnings for working time not worked. Compensation for hours worked and hours not worked can be paid several times a month. An hourly wage earner is usually a worker. The pay system is determined by the collective labour agreement.

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Hours actually worked per week are the number of hours worked by an employee, self-employed or unpaid family worker in the survey week. Hours actually worked per week are inquired separately on main and secondary jobs. Included are also paid and unpaid overtime hours. On the other hand, holidays, mid-week holidays and absences for other reasons (e.g. sickness) shorten hours actually worked per week.

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Hours actually worked per year are the sum of hours worked by all employed persons, or the actual work input. It can be calculated by month, quarter or year. Hours actually worked include hours at main and secondary jobs as well as paid and unpaid overtime hours.

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Hours paid refer to those hours of total working time for which wage and salary earners are paid. Hours paid can be hours worked or not worked, or absences (annual leaves, sick leaves, public holidays, other time off).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A household is formed of all those persons who live together and have meals together or otherwise use their income together. The concept of household is only used in interview surveys.

Excluded from the household population are those living permanently abroad and the institutional population (such as long-term residents of old-age homes, care institutions, prisons or hospitals).

The corresponding register-based information is household-dwelling unit. A household-dwelling unit is formed of persons living permanently in the same dwelling or address. More than one household may belong to the same household-dwelling unit. The concept of household-dwelling unit is used in register-based statistics in place of the household concept.

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A household-dwelling unit consists of the permanent occupants of a dwelling. Persons who according to the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre are institutionalised, or are homeless, or are abroad, or are registered as unknown, do not constitute household-dwelling units. Additionally, persons living in buildings classified as residential homes do not form household-dwelling units if their living quarters do not meet the definition of a dwelling. In the 1980 census household-dwelling units were also formed of these persons.

The concept of household-dwelling unit was adopted in the 1980 census. In earlier years the concept of household was used. A household consisted of family members and other persons living together who made common provision for food. A subtenant providing for his or her own food constituted a separate household. Since 1980 subtenants have been classified in the same household-dwelling units with other occupants.

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The Consumer Barometer includes questions about if and why households intend to raise loans. The indicator's statistical unit is the household, and the measurement unit is "percentage of households".

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Households' indebtedness ratio is calculated as the ratio of their loan debts at end of a quarter to their total disposable income during the preceding four quarters

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The Consumer Barometer includes questions about households' plans to save money, their reasons for saving, and how they intend to use their savings. The indicator's statistical unit is the household, and the measurement unit is "percentage of households".

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The Consumer Barometer includes questions about major purchases that the households intend to make. The indicator's statistical unit is the household, and the measurement unit is "percentage of households".

Intended spending purposes include:
- acquisition or change of owner-occupied dwelling over the next 12 months
- acquisition of new or used motor vehicle over the next 12 months
- acquisition of a holiday home, renovation, home decorating, household appliances, home electronics, recreational equipment, vehicles other than private cars, holiday trips in Finland, holiday trips abroad over the next 6 months.

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In these statistics, housing refers to energy consumption in households. Housing covers residential buildings in housing use inclusive of their saunas and surrounding yards. For surrounding yards, the examination includes electrical equipment only i.e. outdoor lighting and car/block heaters.

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A limited liability company is considered to be a housing company if its purpose is the ownership and possession of one or more buildings in which ( not necessarily) over half of the total floor area is specified in the articles of association as residential apartments in the possession of shareholders; and each share in it confers the right, either alone or together with other shares, to the possession of an apartment or other part of the company's building or real estate in its possession.

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In the Household Budget Survey housing consumption is calculated by the so-called gross rent principle. There an imputed rent is determined for households living in their own dwelling or in a dwelling provided as a benefit in kind based on the market rent of a comparable rented dwelling, and the actual rent paid for those living in a rented dwelling. In determining the gross rent of one's own dwelling use has been made of Statistics Finland's rent inquiry data and household interview data concerning the number of rooms in the dwelling, year of construction, heating mode and location.

In addition to gross rent, housing expenditure includes water charges and some other payments such as chimney-sweeping and refuse collection, maintenance repairs made by the tenant and heating costs not included in the rent. Expenditure of free-time residences is also included in housing expenditure.

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Loans granted for the development or purchase of residential buildings or shares or equity in housing companies or co-operatives, or residential real estate companies. In addition, the category includes loans granted for renovation concerning residential buildings, housing companies, co-operatives or residential real estate, including loans for refurbishments of lesser scope than basic renovation. Loans granted for dwellings purchased as investments are also classified as housing loans.

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Loans granted for the purchase or renovation of new or old free-time residences, including loans for refurbishments of lesser scope than basic renovation.

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Housing expenditure includes operating expenditure, interests on and amortisations of housing loans, capital charges, and real estate tax for the household's actual dwelling.

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A housing loan is debt incurred by a taxpayer in acquiring or renovating his/her own or family's permanent dwelling.

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A hunting prohibition is imposed on a person convicted of an aggravated hunting offence (Criminal Code, Chapter 48a, Section 1a) for at least three years and at most ten years. A hunting prohibition can be issued for a person convicted of a hunting offence (Criminal Code, Chapter 48a, Section 1) who with his or her action has demonstrated manifest heedlessness of the provisions on hunting. A hunting prohibition is ordered on the request of the prosecutor. (Criminal Code, Chapter 48a, Section 6).

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