Concepts




Ultimate beneficial owner. A UBO is an institutional unit controlling a foreign affiliate, i.e. an institutional unit up a foreign affiliate's chain of control, which is not controlled by another institutional unit.

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Ultimate controlling institutional unit of a foreign affiliate. An institutional unit that is at the top the ownership chain of a foreign-owned enterprise and is not controlled by any other institutional unit.

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An institutional unit that is at the top the ownership chain of a foreign-owned enterprise and is not controlled by any other institutional unit.

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An institutional unit using control in a foreign associated company or affiliate located abroad or in the home country that is topmost in the ownership chain of the direct investment enterprise. The ultimate direct investor is not controlled by any other institutional unit. The ultimate direct investor can also be a private person permanently living abroad or in the home country.

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Unconditional imprisonment refers to a sentence served in prison.

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A household has at least one room more than it needs based on its composition (see the definition for overcrowded dwelling for details on calculating the room need).

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Underemployed are those who are engaged in part-time work because full-time work is not available, or whose employer has them work a reduced working week, or who have had no work due to shortage of orders or customers or because of having been laid off. Thus underemployed is an employed person who would like to do more work.

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The underlying cause of death is the disease which has initiated the series of illnesses leading directly to death, or the circumstances connected with an accident or an act of violence which caused the injury or poisoning leading to death. The cause of death used in statistics (the so-called statistical underlying cause of death) is determined according to the selection and application rules of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) compiled by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Annual cause of death statistics are compiled according to the underlying cause of death.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A day on which an unemployed or employed person has been absent from work because of unemployment, lay-off, reduced working week, or arrangements made to start a job.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The basis for Finland's national mapping and for defining horizontal co-ordinates is the national grid co-ordinate system, which is abbreviated as KKJ. This grid co-ordinate system is based on the Gauss-Krüger projection. Co-ordinates according to the KJJ can be defined and presented either in the basic co-ordinate system or in the uniform co-ordinate system (YKJ). Co-ordinates in the uniform co-ordinate system are referred to as uniform co-ordinates.

In the national grid co-ordinate system the area of Finland is divided into six 3-degree wide projection zones or bands. In practice, there are four bands because the outermost ones are located right in the eastern and western borders of the country.
The central meridians of four bands are 21, 24, 27 and 30 degrees east longitude. The projection bands are at their widest in Southern Finland and narrow towards the north. The easting of the location of an object is determined by its distance to the central meridian. The northing is formed of the distance to the equator.

In the basic co-ordinate system the location is described in projections according to band as so-called band co-ordinates. The uniform co-ordinate system differs from the basic co-ordinate system in that there Finland is described as one wide band in place of four bands. The central meridian of this band is 27 degrees, which is the same as the third band of the basic co-ordinate system. The uniform co-ordinate system is used when viewing the whole of Finland or areas crossing the bands of the basic co-ordinate system.

The uniform co-ordinate system is usually used as the co-ordinate system of Statistics Finland's geographic information data unless otherwise stated.

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Unit specific consumption refers to the average annual consumption of a certain equipment group. When it is multiplied by the number of pieces of equipment, the total annual consumption of the equipment group is obtained.

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A UN framework convention concerning the climate change (UNFCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

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In the statistics on university education universities refer to educational institutions belonging to type 42 of educational institutions. Lower (bachelor's) and higher (master's) level university degrees can be attained in universities, as well as further academic degrees, e.g. licentiate's or doctor's degrees. Universities also provide continuing education and open university teaching. There are 20 universities in Finland, all maintained by the state.

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University education refers to education provided by universities. Lower (bachelor's) and higher (master's) level university degrees can be attained in universities, as well as further academic degrees, e.g. licentiate's or doctor's degrees.

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In the statistics on university of applied sciences education, a university of applied sciences education means and educational institution in category 41 of the classification of educational institutions. Students of university of applied sciences education can obtain university of applied sciences degrees and higher university of applied sciences degrees. University of applied sciences are maintained by municipalities, or by municipal or private limited companies or foundations.

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University of applied sciences education refers to education organised in university of applied sciences. Students of university of applied sciences can obtain university of applied sciences degrees and higher university of applied sciences degrees.

Up to 2002 some university of applied sciences education was organised in temporary, experimental university of applied sciences, but even the last experimental university of applied sciences was given permanent status as of the beginning of 2003.

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Weight of vehicle (or combination of vehicles) excluding its load when stationary and ready for the road, as determined by the competent authority of the country of registration.

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A job vacancy is unoccupied (without an employee), when no-one is attending to the tasks in the statistical reference period or no employee has been assigned to the task, but, for example, other employees of the establishment attend to it jointly beside their own tasks. It can also be a question of a completely new task at the establishment.

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In this examination, a residential building is unoccupied if it contains no permanently occupied dwelling units according to register data.

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Unpaid family workers are members of the same household working without actual pay in an enterprise or farm owned by a family member.

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In the Quality of Work Life Survey, overtime without compensation is dependent on the respondent's own opinion. Some may consider overtime staying at work without compensation for five minutes over working time, some do not count a short time over working time as working overtime.

If the respondent works overtime, for which he or she gets compensation as time off but in practice never has time to take all that time off, this can be regarded as overtime without compensation.

The maximum working time prescribed in the working hours legislation also concerns upper salaried employees even if they said that they had signed an employment contract where overtime is regarded as being included in their pay. Only the very top management remains outside the Working Hours Act.

Contract or project workers do not have agreed working time but they are paid on completed work. Then they cannot in principle work overtime either. If the respondent thinks he or she works much more than normal working time (e.g. over 40 hours per week), this can be counted as overtime without compensation.

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Total amount of unpaid subscriptions to share issues, investment unit issues or primary capital issues prior to payment or annulment of the subscription.

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In the statistics on upper secondary general education, upper secondary general education refers to general knowledge education leading to the completion of the full upper secondary general school syllabus (matriculation examination) or a comparable examination (IB examination, Reifeprüfung examination, EB examination or Gymnasieexamen). Individual upper secondary general school subjects can also be studied as a subject student in educational institutions providing upper secondary general education.

Upper secondary general education is provided in educational institutions of the following type:
15 Upper secondary general schools
19 Comprehensive and upper secondary level schools
63 Folk high schools.

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Geographical information systems (GIS) with extensively detailed,
register-based datasets introduce new insights into the process of classifying
urban and rural areas. The independence of administrative borders makes it
possible to recognise and classify areas in greater detail than before. The new
classification system replaces the previously used urban-rural regional
classification system and the trisection of rural areas, which were based on
municipal boundaries. he geographical information-based area classification
system has been created by the Finnish Environment Institute and the
Department of Geography of the University of Oulu.

The classification system is implemented using a nationwide 250 x 250 m grid
of cells. Each cell is categorized into one of seven classes according to the
defined criteria.

Urban areas:
The population centres of urban areas are agglomerations with more than
15 000 residents. Each of these agglomerations consists of a core urban area,
which is then divided into an inner and outer urban area. Surrounding the core
urban area is a peri-urban area.

1. Inner urban area
A compact and densely built area with continuous development.

2. Outer urban area
A dense urban area extending from the boundary of the inner urban area to the
outer edge of the continuous built area.

3. Peri-urban area
A part of the intermediate zone between urban and rural, which is directly
linked to an urban area.

Rural areas:
Different rural types are delineated for the areas that have not been identified
as urban. The boundary between urban and rural areas is not unambiguous.
The classification framework has been designed to be flexible, which makes
it possible to identify an intermediate zone between urban and rural that can
be examined as its own whole. This can be done, for instance, by combining
two classes, the peri-urban area and rural areas close to urban areas.

4. Local centres in rural areas
Population centres located outside urban areas.

5. Rural areas close to urban areas
Areas with a rural character that are functionally connected and close to urban
areas.

6. Rural heartland areas
Rural areas with intensive land use, with a relatively dense population and a
diverse economic structure at the local level.

7. Sparsely populated rural areas
Sparsely populated areas with dispersed small settlements that are located
at a distance from each other. Most of the land areas are forested.

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Use of accommodation capacity is measured by room and bed-place occupancy rates. Room occupancy rate is calculated by dividing the total number of rooms used in a given month by the number of rooms actually available for that month. The occupancy rate of bed-places is calculated by dividing the number of nights spent in a given month by the total number of available bed-places.

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The usual environment of a person consists of the direct vicinity of his/her home and place of work or study and other places frequently visited (e.g. food shops, bank and other services). The concept of usual environment and, therefore, tourism has two dimensions: frequency and distance. Places which are frequently visited by a person (on a routine basis) are considered as part of the usual environment even though these places may be located at a considerable distance from the place of residence (e.g. weekly visits to one's own holiday home). On the other hand, places located close to the place of residence of a person are also part of the usual environment even if actual spots are rarely visited.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Jaa