Audiovisual and related services comprise services related to the production of motion pictures on film or video, the production of radio and television programmes and musical recordings, fees received by producers, directors and actors, and fees paid on sales of distribution rights.
The item also includes fees paid to non-resident performers, directors etc. for theatrical and musical productions, sporting events, circuses and other similar events.
1) Legal services, accounting, auditing, bookkeeping, administrative and public relations services:
Legal services cover all legal advisory and representation services in any legal, judicial and statutory procedures and drafting services of legal documents and instruments. It also covers certification consultancy, auditing and bookkeeping services, tax consulting services and preparation of tax documents, analysing services of financial statements, management consultancy and management auditing services. Also included are services related to improvement of public image and other PR activity.
2) Advertising, market research and public opinion polling:
Advertising, market research and public opinion polling cover the design, creation and marketing of advertisements by advertising agencies. It also covers media placement, including the purchase and sale of advertising space, exhibition services provided by trade fairs, editorial services, and telemarketing. Also included are services related to market research and public opinion polling on various issues as well as the promotion of products abroad.
3) Research and development services (R&D):
Research and development services cover payments that relate to basic research, applied research and experimental development of new products and processes. Research and development also covers research in social sciences and humanities.
Computer services consist of development, designing and management of information systems and customised software. Included are development and production of applications, and their maintenance and installation services, maintenance and repair of computers and peripheral equipment, hardware consulting, consulting and training services relating to information technology, and other data processing services, such as data entry, tabulation and sales of server space for customer's web pages.
1) Construction abroad
From the point of view of foreign trade in services, construction abroad refers to short-term (recommendation under 12 months) construction or installation projects performed by enterprises resident in the compiling economy for non-resident economic units. Such projects may involve building, renovation, installation or demolition.
Construction abroad covers all services that form an integral part of construction contracts, including site preparation work, building construction, civil engineering, installation and assembly of machinery, finishing of building exteriors and surroundings, and other construction services such as renting services of construction or demolition equipment with operator.
Installation equipment used in installations is included in construction services.
The residency of an economic unit is not determined by its ownership but by the location of its centre of economic interest, i.e. the country where it operates permanently.
2) Construction in Finland
From the point of view of foreign trade in services, construction in Finland comprises short-term (recommendation under 12 months) construction and installation services provided to residents of the compiling economy by non-resident construction enterprises. Construction in Finland is conceptually identical to construction abroad.
Cultural and recreational services include training of employees and related payments, diverse cultural and recreational services, such as library, museum, archiving and other cultural and sports services. The item also includes health services.
Financial intermediation services refer to service fees connected with the intermediation of finances and with investment (incl. issuance of securities), such as commission, brokerage, consultation, depository and other services, and commissions on currency exchange. Payments made on top of real interest for loans, deposits and promissory notes are also entered here, but not interest income or expenses.
Foreign trade in services takes place when an economic actor (e.g. a business enterprise) resident in Finland and an economic actor resident abroad conduct trade in services. The exports of services generate income. The imports of services generate an expense item.
The distinguishing criterion of foreign trade in services is that a domestic company receives compensation from a foreign economic actor for a service provided, or pays a foreign economic actor for a service it has provided.
Freight charges of transport services contain all compensations for transport services paid by Finnish enterprises to foreign enterprises if the transport has taken place as road haulage. The usage of transport services applies to both export and import and also to cabotage and transit trade.
Information services cover news agency services and database services. News agency services include the provision of news, photographs and feature articles to the media. Database services include database searches and computerised search services, data storage and dissemination as well as database conception.
Exports of merchanting services and other trade-related services are normally conducted by enterprises that import goods and receive fees from foreign enterprises for the importing of the goods to Finland. Imports of trade-related services take place when a Finnish enterprise pays to a foreign enterprise compensation for marketing and distributing the Finnish company's products abroad.
Other foreign trade-related services cover commissions on goods and service transactions between resident merchants, commodity brokers, dealers, and commission agents and non-residents. This item also includes transactions in ships, aircraft, and sale of goods by auction. The income received from the service is entered under exports of services. The compensation paid for the service is entered under imports of services irrespective of the direction of the stream of goods.
Merchanting can also cover the purchase by a resident of the compiling economy of goods from a non-resident, and subsequent resale of the goods to another non-resident. During the process, the goods neither enter nor leave the compiling economy.
Operational leasing covers leasing (rental) and charter of ships, aircraft, and transport equipment such as cars, containers and railway carriages without crew.
In the Balance of Payments passenger transportation services cover all services provided - between the compiling economy and abroad or between two foreign economies - in the international transportation of non-residents by resident carriers (credit) and that of residents by non-resident carriers (debit). Excluded are passenger services provided to non-residents by resident carriers within the resident economies; these are included in travel. In addition to the services covered by passenger fares - including fares that are a part of package tours - passenger services include such items as charges for excess baggage, vehicles, or other personal accompanying effects and expenditure on food, drink, or other items on which passengers make expenditures while on board carriers.
Postal and courier services cover the despatch, delivery and collection of letters, parcels, periodicals, etc., as well as poste restante services, sales of stamps and administration of money orders.
Income and expenditure from royalties and licence fees and payments originate from:
1) Authorised use of an intangible asset such as a trademark, copyright, patent, industrial process or technology, design, model, production right, franchise or computer software
2) Use of a produced original or prototype such as a manuscript, cinematographic work or the like to which a licence agreement or copyright has been bought.
1) Architectural, engineering and other technical services
Architectural, engineering and other technical services covers consulting and planning services, project monitoring services, architectural services relating to urban planning and landscaping, cartography, product testing and certification, technical inspection services, exports (sales) and imports (purchases) of services related to project management which take place after project completions. The item further covers architectural planning and project planning of urban and other development projects on the turnkey principle (e.g. dams, bridges, airports).
2) Agricultural services, mining services and on-site processing services
This item covers the provision of agricultural machinery with operator, harvesting, treatment of crops, pest control, and services relating to forestry, hunting and fishing purchased from or sold to a foreign enterprise. The item also includes technical services provided at oil and gas fields, such as drilling, building, repair and dismantling services of derricks, and mineral prospecting and exploration, as well as mine maintenance, drilling, inspection and repair services.
The item also includes treatment, storage and disposal of waste, pollution prevention and decontamination, and environmental consulting and auditing.
Telecommunication services comprise telephone, telex, telegram, cable, satellite, electronic mail and teleconferencing services, including Internet-based business network services.