1. Background analysis of candidates and elected MPs in the Parliamentary elections 2011

In the following review persons entitled to vote and background information on the persons nominated as candidates by the parties and on the elected MPs are examined against diverse statistical data. Data on those entitled to vote are based on the voting register established on 2 March 2011. The background information on the persons is based on statistical data from Statistics Finland's Population Statistics, such as statistics on employment and families. Of the persons entitled to vote only those resident in Finland are included in the review.

1.1. Candidates, elected MPs and persons entitled to vote by sex

The total number of candidates nominated in the Parliamentary elections is 2,315. Of these, 1,412 are men and 903 women. Of the parliamentary parties, the True Finns and the Centre Party have in relative terms the lowest proportions of women candidates (33.2% and 41.2%, respectively). Among the major parties, the True Finns are the only parliamentary party where the proportion of women lies below the average (39%). The highest proportions of women candidates are in the Green League (51.8%) and the National Coalition Party (44.8%). Only the Green League has more women than men candidates. The majority, or 51.6 per cent, of the persons entitled to vote are women.

Figure 1. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by sex and party in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 1. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by sex and party in Parliamentary elections 2011

Table 1. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by sex and party in Parliamentary elections 2011

Men   Women   
Persons
entitled
to vote
48.4 51.6
Candidates 61.0 39.0
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
58.8 41.2
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK
55.2 44.8
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
56.7 43.3
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT
56.4 43.6
   Green
   League
   GREENS
48.2 51.8
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD
57.1 42.9
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
55.4 44.6
   True
   Finns
   PS 
66.8 33.2
   Others 71.5 28.5
Elected MPs 57.5 42.5

Of the elected MPs, 42.5 per cent are women, which is slightly more than the proportion of women candidates (39%). In relative terms, the proportion of elected female MPs was highest in the Social Democratic Party, where women's proportion of elected MPs is 64.3 per cent. It is over 20 percentage points more than the proportion of women candidates for the party. The Christian Democrats and the Swedish People's Party also received in relative terms more female MPs than they had women as candidates.

Figure 2. Women's proportion of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 2. Women's proportion of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011

Table 2. Women's proportion of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011

Constituency   Proportion
of women
of candidates  
Proportion
of women
of persons
entitled to vote
Proportion
of women
of elected
MPs   
Whole country 39.0 51.6 42.5
North Savo 42.4 51.1 22.2
Central Finland 41.8 51.0 60.0
Uusimaa 40.9 51.5 48.6
Helsinki 40.8 54.5 42.9
Varsinais-Suomi 40.3 52.2 47.1
Satakunta 40.2 51.4 33.3
North Karelia   38.9 50.5 50.0
Häme 38.6 51.9 42.9
Oulu 38.5 50.0 33.3
Pirkanmaa 36.7 51.6 44.4
Kymi 36.4 51.0 33.3
South Savo 36.2 51.3 50.0
Vaasa 36.1 50.7 35.3
Lapland 33.3 50.1 42.9
Åland 25.0 51.1 100.0

The lowest proportions of women candidates are in the constituencies of Åland (25.0%) and Lapland (33.3%). The proportions of women candidates are highest in the constituency of North Savo (42.4%). The proportions of women candidates are also higher than the average for the whole country in the constituencies of Central Finland, Uusimaa, Helsinki, Varsinais-Suomi and Satakunta.

The majority of persons entitled to vote are women in all constituencies. The strongest majority is in the constituency of Helsinki, where 54.5 per cent of the persons entitled to vote but only 40.8 per cent of the candidates are women.

The difference between the population structure and the candidate structure, or the under-representation of women, is greatest in the constituency of Åland, where 25 per cent of the candidates, but 51 per cent of the persons entitled to vote, are women. In the constituency of Lapland the proportion of female candidates is 33.3 per cent and 50.1 per cent of persons entitled to vote are women. The difference is smallest in the constituency of North Savo, 8.7 percentage points.

Women make up 42.5 per cent of all elected MPs. More women than men were elected only in the constituency of Central Finland, where 60 per cent of the elected MPs are women. Equal numbers of men and women were elected in North Karelia and South Savo. The lowest proportions of women were elected in North Savo (22.2%) and in the constituencies of Satakunta and Kymi (both 33.3%). It should be noted, however, that in small constituencies randomness may swing the gender proportions quite substantially.

1.2. Foreign background

Around three per cent of the candidates have a foreign background. In all, 1.3 per cent of the persons entitled to vote have a foreign background. Persons whose mother tongue is not Finnish, Swedish or Sami are regarded as having a foreign background. The highest proportions of candidates with a foreign background were nominated by the Swedish People's Party (8.4%) and the Green League (5.3%). The True Finns have the lowest proportion of foreign-language speakers as candidates (0.8%).

Figure 3. Persons entitled to vote and candidates with a foreign background in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 3. Persons entitled to vote and candidates with a foreign background in Parliamentary elections 2011

1.3. Average age

The average age of men candidates has fallen by about two years from the previous Parliamentary elections. In contrast, women candidates are now six months older, on average, than in the previous Parliamentary elections. The average age of men candidates is now 46.2 years and that of women candidates 44.3 years. Women candidates are, on average, about two years younger than men candidates are.

Table 3. Average age of candidates by sex and constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011

Constituency   Men   Women   
Whole country 46.2 44.3
Lapland 50.7 45.1
North Savo 47.1 46.1
Kymi 47.1 44.7
North Karelia 47.1 42.3
South Savo 47.0 43.5
 Pirkanmaa 46.6 45.2
Häme 46.5 44.4
Oulu 46.3 43.0
Satakunta 46.1 43.9
Varsinais-Suomi 45.9 42.6
Uusimaa 45.8 45.3
Åland 45.2 48.5
Helsinki 44.9 43.2
Central Finland 44.3 44.5
Vaasa 44.2 45.2

Figure 4. Average age of candidates by sex and constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 4. Average age of candidates by sex and constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011

The average age of men entitled to vote is 48.1 years and that of women 50.9 years. Men candidates are a couple of years younger than men entitled to vote, but women candidates are nearly seven years younger than women entitled to vote.

The youngest women candidates were nominated in North Karelia (42.3 years) and Varsinais-Suomi (42.6 years). The youngest men candidates were nominated in the constituencies of Vaasa (44.2 years), Central Finland (44.3 years) and Helsinki (44.9 years). The oldest women candidates were nominated in Åland (48.5 years) and North Savo (46.1 years). Men candidates are oldest in Lapland (50.7 years). The largest age difference between men and women candidates is in Lapland, i.e. 5.6 years and the smallest in Central Finland and Uusimaa, where it is under one year.

The average age of the elected MPs is 48.0 years, that of male MPs 50.2 years and that of female MPs 45.0 years.

Figure 5. Age structure of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 5. Age structure of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs in Parliamentary elections 2011

Table 4. Age structure of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs in Parliamentary elections 2011

–29   30–39   40–49   50–59   60+   
Persons
entitled
to vote
18.5 14.7 16.7 17.8 32.3
Candidates 15.5 19.1 25.3 22.7 17.4
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
17.6 14.6 27.9 29.6 10.3
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK
11.6 20.3 36.6 22.0 9.5
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
12.6 22.7 26.9 27.3 10.5
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT
15.7 22.9 21.2 28.0 12.3
   Green
   League
   GREENS
16.7 30.3 29.8 18.0 5.3
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD  
9.4 15.7 30.4 26.2 18.3
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
18.1 21.7 32.5 15.7 12.0
   True
   Finns
   PS 
5.9 16.0 26.9 27.3 23.9
   Others   21.7 15.6 16.5 16.7 29.6
Elected MPs   5.0 19.5 33.0 28.5 14.0

The Green League has the highest proportion, nearly one half, of the candidates younger than 40 years of age. The proportion of candidates younger than 40 years of age is higher than their proportion of the persons entitled to vote also in the Swedish People's Party, the Left Alliance and the Social Democratic Party. The lowest proportions of young candidates were nominated by the True Finns and the Christian Democrats. The Coalition Party has the highest proportion of candidates aged 40 to 49.

The True Finns (51.3%) and the Christian Democrats (44.5%) have the highest proportion of candidates aged 50 or over, the True Finns even more than among the persons entitled to vote (50.1%). In the Green League and the Swedish People's Party fewer than 30 per cent of the candidates are over the age of 50.

The proportion of young people among the elected MPs is considerably lower than their proportion of persons entitled to vote or candidates. Only five per cent of the elected MPs are aged under 30, while their proportion of all people entitled to vote is 18.5 per cent and 15.5 per cent of the candidates. Compared with the previous elections, the proportion of young people nevertheless grew by four percentage points. In the 2007 elections only two persons aged under 30 were elected to the Parliament, that is, one per cent. The largest age group in the new Parliament is formed by those aged 40 to 49, to which one third of all MPs belong.

1.4. Employment

At the end of 2009, just over one half, or 53.4 per cent of all persons entitled to vote were employed, 6.7 per cent unemployed, 7.2 per cent students, and 28.8 per cent pensioners. Around 90 per cent of the candidates of the three major parties, the Centre Party, the Coalition Party and the Social Democratic Party, were employed, while in the True Finns the proportion of employed was 66.8 per cent. The Social Democrats, the Coalition Party and the Centre Party have virtually no unemployed candidates. In contrast, 11.3 per cent of the True Finns have been unemployed at the end of 2009. Around 71 per cent of all candidates were employed and about seven per cent were unemployed at the end of 2009.

Figure 6. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by main type of activity in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 6. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by main type of activity in Parliamentary elections 2011

In the major parties only six to nine per cent of the candidates are students or pensioners. The proportion of student candidates is highest in the Green League (10.1%) and the Left Alliance (8.5%). The proportion of pensioner candidates is highest among the True Finns (14.7%) and the Christian Democrats (7.9%).

Table 5. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by main type of activity in Parliamentary elections 2011

Employed   Unemployed   Students   Pensioners   Others   
Persons
entitled
to vote
53.4 6.7 7.2 28.8 3.8
Candidates 71.4 7.3 7.1 10.7 3.6
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
91.0 1.7 3.9 2.1 1.3
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK    
89.7 0.4 4.3 4.7 0.9
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
88.2 3.4 4.6 3.4 0.4
   Green
   League
   GREENS
79.8 5.3 10.1 2.2 2.6
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
79.5 6.0 4.8 4.8 4.8
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD
78.5 6.3 3.1 7.9 4.2
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT
76.3 8.5 8.5 4.7 2.1
   True
   Finns
   PS 
66.8 11.3 2.5 14.7 4.6
   Others  44.8 12.4 11.8 24.2 6.8
Elected MPs  93.5 0.5 2.0 3.5 0.5

Nearly all elected MPs, or 93.5 per cent, were employed at the end of 2009. In all, 2.0 per cent were students and 3.5 per cent pensioners.

1.5. Family status

Of all persons entitled to vote nearly one quarter are parents of a family with children, or the family had at least one underage child. Nearly three per cent of them are single parents. In addition, around six per cent are parents with only children aged over 18 living at home. Around 33 per cent are childless couples, close on 30 per cent live alone without a family and around eight per cent of persons entitled to vote are young adults living at home.

Figure 7. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by family status in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 7. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by family status in Parliamentary elections 2011

The candidates also differ in their family status from persons entitled to vote: considerably more of them are parents of a family with children and childless couples than is the case among persons entitled to vote. This is of course explained by that the age structure of candidates is younger than among persons entitled to vote. For a major part of those entitled to vote children have already moved from home, while most candidates are at an age when children are still living at home.

The True Finns, the Left Alliance and the Swedish People's Party have the lowest proportion of parents of families with children (37% to 42%), while in other major parties their proportion is 47 to 50 per cent. The proportions of young people living at home are highest among the candidates of the Centre Party (12.9%) and the Swedish People's Party (10.8%). The Green League and the Left Alliance have most candidates without a family, usually living alone, that is, nearly one quarter of all candidates.

Of all persons entitled to vote, 44.3 per cent are married and 14.5 per cent are cohabiting. In all, 48.5 per cent of the candidates are married and 13.9 per cent are cohabiting.

Christian Democrat candidates differ most from the voters in that 74.9 per cent of them are married. The Green League and the Left Alliance have the lowest proportions of married persons (43.0% and 47.9%, respectively) but their proportion of cohabiting couples is highest, about 19 per cent.

Of the elected MPs, 45.5 per cent are parents of a family with children, that is, they have at least one underage child at home. In addition, around nine per cent are parents with adult children living at home. One fifth of the elected MPs do not belong to a family and one quarter are living in a childless partnership.

Table 6. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by family status in Parliamentary elections 2011

Parent of a
married/
cohabiting
family 
Single
parent 
Childless
couple  
Not
belonging
to a family  
Youth
living
at home   
Persons
entitled
to vote
26.2 4.1 32.7 28.7 8.3
Candidates 37.8 5.9 24.5 25.8 5.9
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD
53.9 4.2 22.5 15.2 4.2
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
49.4 5.6 17.2 15.0 12.9
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK    
48.3 6.5 21.6 18.5 5.2
   Swedish People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
47.0 3.6 16.9 21.7 10.8
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
46.6 6.7 23.1 16.8 6.7
   Green
   League
   GREENS
44.3 8.8 17.5 24.6 4.8
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT         
39.4 5.9 28.0 24.2 2.5
   True
   Finns
   PS 
38.7 6.7 30.3 21.8 2.5
   Others  17.3 5.0 29.6 42.1 6.0
Elected MPs   46.0 8.5 24.5 20.5 0.5

1.6. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by number of children in 2011

Although the majority of persons entitled to vote and many candidates are not at the moment going through the everyday life of a family with children, it does not mean that they did not have experiences of it. Nearly 35 per cent of persons entitled to vote have never had children of their own, while about 31 per cent of the candidates are completely childless. The proportion of candidates without children is higher than average in parties with a large proportion of young candidates, such as the Green League and the Swedish People's Party. The Christian Democrats have the lowest proportion of candidates without children, only around 20 per cent.

Nearly 80 per cent of the elected MPs have biological children. Large families are also more common to the elected MPs than to persons entitled to vote. Thirty per cent of the elected MPs have at least three children, while this is so for only about one fifth of persons entitled to vote.

Figure 8. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by number of biological children in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 8. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by number of biological children in Parliamentary elections 2011

Table 7. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by number of biological children in Parliamentary elections 2011

0   1   3   4+   
Persons
entitled
to vote
34.9 15.8 27.8 14.1 7.4
Candidates 31.2 14.2 25.5 18.5 10.6
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD
19.9 9.9 28.3 19.4 22.5
   True
   Finns
   PS
22.7 13.0 25.6 27.3 11.3
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
23.5 18.9 34.5 16.8 6.3
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK     
25.0 9.1 31.9 22.8 11.2
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
27.9 9.9 27.0 20.6 14.6
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT
28.8 15.3 26.7 18.2 11.0
   Green
   League
   GREENS
34.6 14.9 21.5 18.4 10.5
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
36.1 8.4 26.5 21.7 7.2
   Others   43.1 17.6 19.2 13.1 7.1
Elected MPs   22.1 14.0 34.0 18.5 11.5

1.7. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by educational level in 2011

Highly educated people are seeking entry to the Parliament. The educational level of the candidates of almost all parties is higher than that of the average population. Of the total population, 30.8 per cent rely on basic level education, but this is the case only for 11.9 per cent of the candidates. Of the candidates nominated by the major parties even fewer rely on basic level education: around five per cent for the Centre Party, the Social Democratic Party and the Coalition Party, slightly over six per cent for the Green League and the Social Democrats and nearly seven per cent for the Christian Democrats. Around 14 per cent of the True Finns candidates and about ten per cent of the Left Alliance candidates have basic level education only. More than one half of the candidates are educated to the tertiary level, but only about 29 per cent of those entitled to vote have attained that level. The candidates of the National Coalition Party have the highest level of education, as over 74 per cent of them have tertiary level education. The Left Alliance (39.3%) and the True Finns (43.6%) have the lowest proportion of candidates with tertiary level education.

Figure 9. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by educational level in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 9. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by educational level in Parliamentary elections 2011

Table 8. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by educational level in Parliamentary elections 2011

Basic
level  
Secondary
level  
Lowest
tertiary  
Lower
tertiary  
Higher
tertiary,
doctorate   
Persons
entitled
to vote
30.8 40.7 11.3 8.8 8.4
Candidates 11.9 37.6 11.1 11.9 27.5
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
4.7 27.9 15.5 14.2 37.8
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
4.8 32.5 13.3 13.3 36.1
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK
5.2 20.7 13.8 12.9 47.4
   Green
   League
   GREENS
6.1 25.0 5.7 13.2 50.0
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
6.3 41.2 9.7 15.1 27.7
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD    
6.8 29.8 15.7 13.1 34.6
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT  
10.2 50.4 7.6 13.1 18.6
   True
   Finns
   PS
13.9 42.4 13.4 10.5 19.7
   Others  23.6 47.0 9.6 8.5 11.3
Elected MPs   2.5 25.0 14.0 10.0 48.5

Highly educated people are elected as MPs. Over 70 per cent of the elected MPs have tertiary level education, while this is the case for one half of all candidates and for nearly 30 per cent of all persons entitled to vote. Just 2.5 per cent of MPs rely on basic level education. Of the candidates 11.9 per cent had completed only basic level education and over 30 per cent of all persons entitled to vote.

1.8. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by income subject to state taxation in Parliamentary elections 2011

Income is the one variable that marks the greatest difference between candidates and voters. The median of the candidates' income subject to state taxation is EUR 32,042, that of all persons entitled to vote EUR 21,561 and that of employed persons in 2009 EUR 29,897. Thus, the candidates' income compared with all persons entitled to vote is 1.5 times higher. Compared with working persons entitled to vote, candidates' income is around seven per cent higher. The median income of candidates in 2007 was EUR 30,116, which is 63 per cent higher than the income of persons entitled to vote.

The Coalition Party candidates have the biggest income difference with persons entitled to vote, as their income is around 2.5 times higher than among voters. The income of candidates in the Centre Party, the Social Democrats and the Swedish People's Party is also at least double that of those entitled to vote. Among the parliamentary parties, the Left Alliance and the True Finns are closest to the electorate, but even their income is around 50 per cent higher than among persons entitled to vote. Only for candidates of small parties, the income is below the level of the voters.

Figure 10. Persons to vote, candidates and elected MPs by median income subject to state taxation (in euro) in Parliamentary elections in 2011 and 2007

Figure 10. Persons to vote, candidates and elected MPs by median income subject to state taxation (in euro) in Parliamentary elections in 2011 and 2007

Table 9. Persons to vote, candidates and elected MPs by median income subject to state taxation (in euro) in Parliamentary elections 2011 and 2007

2011   2007  
Persons
entitled to vote
21,561 18,528
Employed 29,897 26,105
Candidates 32,042 30,116
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK  
54,569 46,895
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK
48,722 46,561
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
46,225 43,542
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP  
43,026 43,020
   Green
   League
   GREENS
35,118 27,461
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD
32,850 30,757
   True
   Finns
   PS
31,645 19,518
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT   
31,480 31,535
   Others  15,646 15,917
Elected MPs   82,566 74,104

During the present parliamentary period the nominal income of all persons entitled to vote increased by 16.4 per cent, that of working persons by 14.5 per cent and that of candidates by 6.4 per cent. Income rose most for the candidates of the True Finns, by over 60 per cent, although the median income among them is still the lowest of all parliamentary parties. Among the Greens, the income went up by 27.1 per cent and among the Coalition Party by 16.4 per cent. In other parties, the change in median income is smaller than among all persons entitled to vote. The median income of Left Alliance and small party candidates even decreased from the previous elections.

The median income of the elected MPs was EUR 82,566 per year. Their median income is nearly 3.8 times that of persons entitled to vote and 2.6 times that of the candidates. Compared with the previous Parliamentary elections, the median income of the elected MPs rose by 11.4 per cent.

Figure 11. Median income subject to state taxation (in euro) of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011 ¹

Figure 11. Median income subject to state taxation (in euro) of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011 ¹
¹ Åland is excluded from the examination due to the small number of observations.

Table 10. Median income subject to state taxation (in euro) of persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by constituency in Parliamentary elections 2011 1)

Constituency   Persons entitled
to vote  
Candidates    Elected MPs   
Whole country 21,561 32,042 82,566
Satakunta 19,950 36,997 77,768
Kymi   20,669 36,167 71,459
Häme 20,958 35,166 77,197
Vaasa 20,148 34,902 83,170
Helsinki 24,547 33,641 85,492
Uusimaa 26,270 32,635 96,786
North Savo 19,042 32,091 80,840
Oulu 19,858 31,694 79,421
South Savo  18,547 30,564 92,902
Pirkanmaa 20,892 30,504 76,333
Central Finland 19,268 30,360 83,925
Lapland 19,127 28,542 60,174
North Karelia 17,520 26,527 107,349
Varsinais-Suomi 21,524 23,215 83,775
1) Åland is excluded from the examination due to the small number of observations.

The income level of those entitled to vote is the highest in the constituencies of Uusimaa and Helsinki. The candidates with the highest income come from Satakunta, Kymi and Häme. The income of the candidates and persons entitled to vote is closest to each other in the constituency of Varsinais-Suomi, where the candidates' median income was only EUR 1,700 higher than that of persons entitled to vote. The difference is biggest in Satakunta, where it is around EUR 17,000. Except for Varsinais-Suomi, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Pirkanmaa and Lapland the candidates' median income is at least 50 per cent higher than in the electorate of the area. Voters have the lowest income in North Karelia and South Savo, where the voters' median income remained under EUR 19,000. The candidates with the lowest income, EUR 23,000, come from the constituency of Varsinais-Suomi.

MPs with the highest income were elected from the constituency of North Karelia. There the median income of the elected MPs is EUR 107,349, which is over six times that of persons entitled to vote and four times that of the candidates in that area. MPs with the lowest income were elected in the constituency of Lapland, where the median income of the elected MPs was slightly over EUR 60,000.

1.9. Income brackets

In the following, comparisons are made on the division of candidates into income quintiles that are formed on the basis of the income subject to state taxation of persons entitled to vote. In the division into income quintiles the income brackets are determined so that there is an equal number of persons in each quintile, i.e. 20 per cent of the persons entitled to vote. For the sake of comparison, employed persons in 2009 are also examined in the same income brackets.

The lowest quintile among persons entitled to vote earned in 2009 under EUR 9,708 and the highest quintile over EUR 36,333. Seven per cent of employed persons and 16 per cent of the candidates belong to the lowest quintile. Correspondingly, one third of employed persons and nearly 43 per cent of the candidates belong to the highest income quintile. Of the Coalition Party candidates 75 per cent and nearly two thirds of the Centre Party and SDP candidates belong to the highest income bracket. The proportion of low-income candidates in the parliamentary parties is highest for the Swedish People's Party, the Green League and the Left Alliance. Their low-income earning is explained by the candidates' younger than average age structure and larger student background than among others.

The income structure of small parties’ candidates resembles the average income structure of voters more closely than that of the major parties’ candidates. As many as nearly one third of the candidates of small parties belong to the lowest income bracket and only 14 per cent to the highest income bracket.

Nearly 90 per cent of the elected MPs belong to the highest income quintile. In all, 42.6 per cent of the candidates and 32.6 per cent of employed persons in 2009 belonged to this group. Only 2.5 per cent of the elected MPs were in the lowest quintile, that is, earned less than EUR 9,708.

Figure 12. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by income subject to state taxation (in euro) in Parliamentary elections 2011

Figure 12. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by income subject to state taxation (in euro) in Parliamentary elections 2011

Table 11. Persons entitled to vote, candidates and elected MPs by income subject to state taxation (in euro) in Parliamentary elections 2011

-9,707   -17,016   -25,995   -36,333   36,333+   
Persons
entitled
to vote
20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Employed
2009
7.0 9.5 20.6 30.3 32.6
Candidates 16.0 12.6 12.4 16.4 42.6
   Swedish
   People's
   Party
   in Finland
   RKP
16.9 4.8 8.4 15.7 54.2
   Green
   League
   GREENS
15.8 8.3 15.8 12.7 47.4
   Left-Wing
   Alliance
   LEFT
14.0 13.6 8.5 23.7 40.3
   Christian
   Democrats
   in Finland
   KD
11.0 11.0 15.2 18.3 44.5
   True
   Finns
   PS
10.1 16.0 13.4 23.9 36.6
   Centre
   Party
   of Finland
   KESK  
6.4 6.9 7.7 14.2 64.8
   The Finnish
   Social
   Democratic
   Party
   SDP
5.9 3.8 8.0 18.5 63.9
   National
   Coalition
   Party
   KOK  
5.2 6.0 6.0 7.8 75.0
   Others   31.6 21.9 17.5 14.9 14.2
Elected MPs   2.5 1.5 2.5 5.0 88.5

Source: Parliamentary Elections 2011, confirmed result. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kimmo Moisio (09) 1734 3239, Jaana Asikainen (09) 1734 3506, vaalit@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma


Updated 29.4.2011

Contents (Parliamentary elections 2011)

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Parliamentary elections [e-publication].
ISSN=1799-6279. 2011, 1. Background analysis of candidates and elected MPs in the Parliamentary elections 2011 . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 22.9.2014].
Access method: http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/evaa/2011/evaa_2011_2011-04-29_kat_001_en.html.

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