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2. Professional differentiation among wage and salary earners and entrepreneurs in 2019 and 2014

The share of wage and salary earners working in equal occupations among all wage and salary earners was ten per cent in 2019, unchanged from 2014. The share of entrepreneurs working in equal occupations was 16 per cent in 2019, which remained the same as in 2014.

Figure 1. Number of wage and salary earners in various segregation classes in 2014 and 2019

Figure 1. Number of wage and salary earners in various segregation classes in 2014 and 2019

Professional differentiation by sex, segregation, is based on the classification of occupational groups by gender proportions. The strength of the segregation is determined based on how many persons work in equal occupational groups.

Table 1. 5-class segregation classification of occupations

Segregation class The occupational groups in which
Female occupation women > 90 %
Female-dominated occupation 60 % < share of women <= 90 %
Equal occupation 40 % <= share of women / men <=60 %
Male-dominated occupation 60 % < share of men <= 90 %
Male occupation men > 90 %

Occupational segregation among wage and salary earners and entrepreneurs is examined in the following sections based on the 5-digit level of the Classification of Occupations 2010.

2.1 Share of wage and salary earners working in equal occupations has fallen by five percentage points in five years

In 2019, ten per cent of all wage and salary earners were in so-called equal occupational groups, where the share of different sexes among those included in the occupational group is 40 to 60 per cent. The growth in five years amounted to one percentage point. The share of wage and salary earners working in equal occupations among all wage and salary earners (excl. occupational data missing) was 10 per cent in 2019 and in 2014.

For wage and salary earners, the most evenly divided occupational groups in 2019 were restaurant managers (300 persons in total of whom 50.3 per cent women and 49.7 per cent men), chemical and physical science technicians (3,600 persons in total of whom 49.5 per cent women and 50.5 per cent men), and head teachers (universities of applied sciences) (700 persons in total of whom 49.4 per cent women and 50.6 per cent men).

In 2019, wage and salary earners’ most common equal occupational groups were advertising and marketing professionals (17,100 persons), food and related products machine operators (14,400 persons) and vocational education teachers (12,600 persons).

Table 2. Wage and salary earners aged 18 to 74 in segregation classes in 2019 1)

Segregation class Wage and salary earners Share of wage and salary earners, % Women Share of women, % Men Share of men, %
Female occupations 289,815 14.3 270,746 25.7 19,069 1.9
Female-dominated occupations 756,304 37.2 571,078 54.3 185,226 18.9
Equal occupations 205,254 10.1 103,755 9.9 101,499 10.3
Male-dominated occupations 489,341 24.1 112,385 10.7 376,956 38.4
Male occupations 333,938 16.4 17,062 1.6 316,876 32.3
Total 2,032,585 100.0 1,051,823 100.0 980,762 100.0
1) Segregation classes are based on 5-digit level occupation groups of the Classification of Occupations 2010. Shares in table are shares of those wage and salary earners who had occupational groups. Wage and salary earners were 2,133,398, total, from which share of women was 51.7 per cent and share of men was 48.3 per cent. The data on occupations remained unknown for some 3 per cent of all wage and salary earners, for some 2.5 per cent of all female wage and salary earners and for 3.1 per cent of male wage and salary earners in 2019.
2.2 Share of entrepreneurs working in equal occupations among all entrepreneurs has grown

In 2019, a total of 14.4 per cent of all entrepreneurs were in equal occupations, where the share of different sexes among those included in the occupational groups is 40 to 60 per cent. The share of entrepreneurs working in equal occupations among all entrepreneurs in 2019 (excl. occupational data missing) did not change from 2014.

The examination disregards the fact that women's share of all entrepreneurs was only 34 per cent.

Figure 2. Number of entrepreneurs in various segregation classes in 2014 and 2019

Figure 2. Number of entrepreneurs in various segregation classes in 2014 and 2019

For entrepreneurs, the most evenly divided occupational groups were journalists (in total around 90 persons, of whom 50.6 per cent were women and 49.4 per cent men), sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals (in total around 60 persons, of whom 50.8 per cent are women and 49.2 per cent men) and domestic housekeepers (a total of 540 persons, of whom 49.0 per cent were women and 51.0 per cent men).

In 2019, the most common equal occupational groups of entrepreneurs were shop keepers (small entrepreneurs) (8,400 persons), mixed crop and animal producers (4,900 persons) and restaurant services supervisors and shift managers (4,400 persons).

Table 3. Entrepreneurs aged 18 to 74 in segregation classes in 2019 1)

Segregation class Entrepreneurs Share of entrepreneurs, % Women Share of women, % Men Share of men, %
Female occupations 13,515 6.3 12,514 18.0 1,001 0.7
Female-dominated occupations 21,498 10.0 14,965 21.5 6,533 4.5
Equal occupations 34,314 16.0 16,219 23.3 18,095 12.5
Male-dominated occupations 93,361 43.6 22,595 32.5 70,766 49.0
Male occupations 51,224 23.9 3,172 4.6 48,052 33.3
Total 213,912 100.0 69,465 100.0 144,447 100.0
1) Segregation classes are based on 5-digit level occupation groups of the Classification of Occupations 2010. Shares in table are shares of those entrepreneurs who had occupational groups. Entrepreneurs were 240,128 total, from which share of women was 33.9 per cent and share of men was 66.1 per cent. The data on occupations remained unknown for some 10.8 per cent of all entrepreneurs, for some 13.7 per cent of all female entrepreneurs and for 9.1 per cent of male entrepreneurs in 2019.

Source: Employment Statistics, Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Juho Keva 029 551 3601, info@stat.fi

Head of Department in charge: Hannele Orjala


Updated 18.11.2021

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Employment [e-publication].
ISSN=2323-6825. Industry, employer sector and jobs 2019, 2. Professional differentiation among wage and salary earners and entrepreneurs in 2019 and 2014 . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 27.6.2022].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/tyokay/2019/04/tyokay_2019_04_2021-11-18_kat_002_en.html