The concepts described on these pages are words and expressions used in statistics with a specific, limited meaning. In everyday speech the word may have a different meaning. The same concept may mean a different thing in different sets of statistics. For example, the concept “unemployed” has three different definitions.
In connection with each definition you can find information about which sets of statistics use the concept. If you are looking for statistical figures, go from the definition to the statistics page.
The classification of occupancy rate:
- Spacious: a household-dwelling unit of one to five persons with room units at its disposal exceeding the number of its members by at least three (kitchen is not included in the number of rooms).
- Overcrowded: more than one person per room unit (kitchen is not included in the number of rooms).
- Normal: household-dwelling units not belonging to the above categories.
Occupational accidents are such employment accidents for which insurance companies have paid compensation.
An occupational accident is defined in Section 4 of the Employment Accidents Act. An employment accident means any accident causing injury or illness sustained by the employee in the course of his/her employment or in circumstances arising from employment. According to the act, employment accidents are divided according to the place of accident as follows:
- an employment accident has occurred at work or in work-related circumstances. Then traffic accidents while at work are also defined as employment accidents.
- commuting accident has occurred outside the actual working time while commuting from his/her residence to work or vice versa.
An enterprise that is a subsidiary or similar company of an enterprise group, but is not included in the database of the Register of Enterprises and Establishments or does not have a line for annual data for a statistical year. Odd units are often real estate or housing companies whose activity is so minor or of a type that they do not come within the scope of description of the Register of Enterprises and Establishments.Read the full definition of the concept
A matter recorded in the police information system as an offence. The offence may have become known to the police, customs or border guard either as a report or in connection with another investigation. The offence is recorded in the statistics for the year in which it becomes known to the authorities. An offence refers to an act for which a punishment is decreed in legislation. The task of the police, customs and border guard is to investigate the offence, conduct a pre-trial investigation and transfer the solved offence to the prosecutor for consideration. In more lenient cases, the offence may be left unreported to the prosecutor on the grounds laid down in law. The statistical unit used is an offence. If several persons have taken part in the same offence together, the number of offences recorded is one. If several similar offences are committed at the same time, several of these offences can be recorded. The offence is recorded based on the municipality where the offence occurred. The offence may also have taken place abroad and a report of it is recorded if the police, customs or border guard have jurisdiction in the matter and the offence has concerned (as a suspect or victim) a Finnish citizen, a person permanently resident in Finland or a Finnish legal person.
A matter entered into the police information system as an offence.Read the full definition of the concept
The task of the police, customs and border guard is to investigate the offence, conduct a pre-trial investigation and transfer the solved offence to the prosecutor for consideration. In more lenient cases, the offence may be left unreported to the prosecutor on the grounds laid down in law.Read the full definition of the concept
Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Refinery gas (1111)
- LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) (1112)
- Naphtha (1121)
- Aviation gasoline (1123)
- Kerosene (jet fuel) (1131)
- Other kerosenes (1132)
- Light fuel oil (heating fuel oil) (1134)
- Gasoil (for non-road use) (1135)
- Other medium distillates (1139)
- Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content < 1% (1141)
- Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content = 1% (1142)
- Other heavy distillates (1143)
- Petroleum coke (1150)
- Recycled and waste oils (1160)
- Other petroleum products (1190).
Old dwellings are other than new or unknown dwellings. (Unknown are those dwellings whose year of construction is not known.) (Cf. new dwelling.)Read the full definition of the concept
Online shopping is the ordering of goods and services via a computer network, regardless of payment or delivery method.Read the full definition of the concept
Online studying is studying with the help of a data network. The data network may be the Internet or an organisation's internal network, i.e. an intranet. The network can be used interactively in studying and teaching as well as for searching for and sharing information.Read the full definition of the concept
Early childhood education and care provided as a club activity for children or for children together with an adult. Open early childhood education and care is primarily intended for children that do not take part in part-time or full-time early childhood education and care. Open early childhood education and care includes playgrounds, club and play schemes for children and open early education. There are no statutory qualification requirements for persons working in open early childhood education and care or for the number of employees required for each site.Read the full definition of the concept
Operating costs = operating expenses total + depreciation and devaluation + allocated common expenses
Operating income= operating income total + increase (decrease) in inventories of finished goods and in work in progress + work performed by the undertaking for its own purpose and capitalised + allocated common incomeRead the full definition of the concept
Net operating surplus is obtained after deduction of compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies as well as consumption of fixed capital from value added. It is the surplus or deficit on production activities before interest, rents or charges and corresponds to the income which the units obtain from their own use of their production facilities.Read the full definition of the concept
An agreement by which the producer commits to delivering in the future to the customer the agreed commodities or services for the price specified in the agreement.Read the full definition of the concept
An order stock is the value of undelivered orders of enterprises at the end of the month.Read the full definition of the concept
An organisational innovation is the implementation of a new organisational method in an enterprise's business practices (including knowledge management), workplace organisation or external relations that has not been previously used by the enterprise. It must be the result of strategic decisions made by the management.
Mergers with, or acquisitions of, enterprises are not organisational innovations, even if these are new to the enterprise.
During 2012, Statistics Finland has adopted a new origin classification. A similar classification is already used in the other Nordic countries. The origin and background country are determined based on the country of birth data of the person's parents. Using the origin classification it is easy to distinguish between persons born abroad and born in Finland with a foreign background.
Data on persons that died before 1964 have not been entered into the Population Information System of the Population Register Centre. There are nearly 900,000 persons among the Finnish population who have been born in Finland and both parent's country of birth is unknown because the parents of these persons have died before the Population Information System was established. People born in Finland before 1970, whose parents' background is not known, have been concluded to be persons with Finnish background if their native language is a national language (Finnish, Swedish, Sami). All such persons who have at least one parent who was born in Finland are also considered to be persons with Finnish background. The background country for all persons with Finnish background is Finland.
Persons whose both parents or the only known parent have been born abroad are considered to be persons with foreign background. Persons who have been born abroad and whose parents' data are not included in the Population Information System are also considered to be persons with foreign background. Persons born in Finland before 1970, whose native language is a foreign language have been considered to be persons with foreign background, as have persons born in Finland in 1970 or after this, whose parents' data are not included in the Population Information System.
If both parents of a person have been born abroad, the background country is primarily the country of birth of the biological mother. If a person only has knowledge of a father that was born abroad, the background country is the country of birth of the father. If either parent's country of birth is unknown, the background country for persons born abroad is their own country of birth. For persons born in Finland, whose parents' data are unknown and who have been deducted to be with foreign background, the background country is unknown.
For children adopted from abroad, the adoptive parents are regarded as the biological parents. Thus a child adopted from abroad by persons born in Finland is a person with Finnish background and their background country is Finland.
An index series from which the effects of factors not related to production have not been removed. Non-productional factors include variations in the number of working days per month and fluctuations in production caused by seasonal variation.Read the full definition of the concept
Other accounts receivables/payables include, for example, interbank claims and liabilities in payment transmission, term of payment-related claims and liabilities in securities transactions, insurance companies' reinsurance accounts payable and receivable as well as deposits, and corporate financing based on bills of exchange. Claims that cannot be recorded under any other BOP category are also recorded under other capital.Read the full definition of the concept
The respondent could self determine whether the training was connected with work or occupation or not.
Adult education was other than connected with the participant's work or occupation when the respondent participated in education for reasons having to do with personal, human relations, hobby or pastime or social considerations.
Adult education was connected with the participant's work or occupation when the respondent took part in education to acquire knowledge or skills needed for the present or future work or occupation, to increase his or her income or to improve his or her general opportunities on the labour market.
Receivables from payment transactions, receivables on various settlement accounts, margin receivables related to derivative instruments and other receivables not reported under any other item in the balance sheet.Read the full definition of the concept
Other bonds than a debenture or a reference loan issued by central government. This category includes such as medium term notes.Read the full definition of the concept
Research and development services, legal services, accounting, auditing, bookkeeping and tax consultancy services, management consulting and public relations services, advertising, market research, public opinion polling, architectural services, engineering services, other technical services, waste treatment and depollution, services for agriculture and forestry and fishing, services related to mining and quarrying and oil and gas extraction, direct leasing services, trade-related services, employment services, and other business services.Read the full definition of the concept
This category includes such as medium term note certificates.Read the full definition of the concept
Other forms of continuing vocational training are:
- Planned periods of training, instruction or practical experience using the normal tools of work, either at the immediate place of work or in a work situation
- Planned learning through job rotation, exchanges or secondments
- Attendance of learning/quality circles
- Self-learning and distance learning through audio/video tapes, correspondence courses, computer-based methods (including the Internet) or other self-learning/distance learning through a Learning Resources Centre
- Instruction at conferences, workshops, lectures and seminars at which the purpose of the employees attending the events is to learn/receive training.
The outstanding balance on factoring credit, hire purchase contracts, rental financing credit, repos, credit card credit and other claims not belonging to any other category of financial assets.Read the full definition of the concept
Other current transfers (D.7) include:
Net non-life insurance premiums (D.71)
These are premiums payable under policies taken out by institutional units. They comprise both the actual premiums payable by policy holders to obtain insurance cover during the accounting period (premiums earned) and the premium supplements payable out of the property income attributed to insur-ance policy holders, after deducting the service charges of insurance enter-prises arranging the insurance.
Non-life insurance claims (D.72)
These represent the claims due under contracts in respect of non-life insur-ance, i.e. amounts which insurance enterprises are obliged to pay in settle-ment of injuries or damage suffered by persons or goods (including fixed capital goods).
Current transfers within general government (D.73)
Current transfers within general government include transfers between the different sub-sectors of general government (central government, local gov-ernment, social security funds) with the exception of subsidies, investment grants and other capital transfers. Current transfers within general govern-ment do not include transactions on behalf of another unit; these are record-ed only once in the accounts, in the resources of the beneficiary unit on whose behalf the transaction is made. This situation arises particularly when a government agency (e.g. a central government department) collects taxes which are automatically transferred, in total or in part, to another govern-ment agency (e.g. a local authority). In this case, the tax receipts destined for the other government agency are shown as if they were collected directly by that agency and not as a current transfer within general government. On the other hand, transfers of tax receipts which form part of a block transfer from central government to another government agency are included in cur-rent transfers within general government.
Current transfers in international co-operation (D.74).
Current transfers in international cooperation include all transfers in cash or in kind between general government and governments or international organ-isations in the rest of the world, except investment grants and other capital transfers. The following are included:
a) Contributions of the government to international organisations (excluding taxes payable by member governments to supranational organisations)
b) Any current transfers which general government may receive from the in-stitutions or organizations referred to under (a)
c) Current transfers between governments, either in cash (e.g. payments in-tended to finance the budget deficits of foreign countries or overseas territo-ries) or in kind (e.g. counterpart of gifts of food and military equipment, emergency aid after natural disasters in the form of food, clothing, medi-cines, etc.)
d) Wages and salaries paid by a government, an institution of the European Union or an international organisation, to advisers or technical assistance ex-perts made available to developing countries.
Miscellaneous current transfers (D75)
Miscellaneous current transfers include current transfers to non-profit institu-tions, current transfers between households, and other miscellaneous current transfers.
VAT and GNI-based Union own resources (D76)
A day on which an employed person has been absent from work for reasons such as parental leave or labour dispute.Read the full definition of the concept
Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Vegetable-based fuels (3170)
- Animal-based fuels (3180)
- Landfill gas (3211)
- Biogas from wastewater treatment (3212)
- Industrial biogas (3213)
- Other biogas (3219)
- Liquid biofuels (3220)
- Recovered fuels (3231)
- Demolition wood (3232)
- Impregnated wood (chemically treated) (3233)-
- Other mixed fuels (3239)
- Gasified waste (3240)
- Plastics waste (4911)
- Rubber waste (4912)
- Hazardous waste (4913)
- Other waste (4919)
- Exothermic heat from industry (4920)
- Electricity, used in electric boilers and heat pumps (4940)
- Hydrogen (4980)
- Other non-specified energy sources (4990).
A vessel moving without its own power regardless of size, excluding barges.Read the full definition of the concept
The item Other equity includes capital investments (such as holdings in international organisations) that are not part of portfolio or direct investments.Read the full definition of the concept
A main type of activity category, which includes persons on whose activity no information was obtained from the source data, or who do not fulfil the criteria for other main type of activity categories.Read the full definition of the concept
Other inputs comprise data on the prices of services that are not directly associated with building construction. Some of them relate to building contracting and some to the overhead costs of building sites. Data on the costs of transport, machine works and lift installations are collected by monitoring subcontracting costs.Read the full definition of the concept
Other investments include loans and deposits, trade credits, other equity, SDR allocations, insurance, pension and standardised guarantee schemes, and other accounts receivable/payable.Read the full definition of the concept
Other companies and foreign corporations or their branches in Finland.Read the full definition of the concept
This category comprises lending items included in lending II. Such items include contract financing not related to hire purchase contracts and inventory financing related to the financing of working capital. Combinations of several types of financing, such as financing of deferred payments and credit sales are reported here if it is not possible to classify them in any other category.Read the full definition of the concept
The personnel fund's equity comprises the members' capital and other fund capital.
Other fund capital includes the fund's joint capital and any donations made to the fund.
Any profits or losses made by the fund may be added to the members' capital and other fund capital in the manner described in section 22 in the Act on Personnel Funds (814/1989).
Other primary income consist of taxes on production and imports, subsidies and rents for natural resources.Read the full definition of the concept
Loans granted for e.g. business activity (production purposes), arrangement of debts and other similar purposes.
A credit granted to a farmer for the purchase of seed grain or a tractor is not consumption credit but comes under the category of other purpose of use, but a credit granted to a farmer for the purchase of a passenger car is classified as consumption credit.
A religious community whose purpose is to practice religion publicly and which has been registered in accordance with Section 2 of the Freedom of Religion Act, and congregations of such communities.Read the full definition of the concept
Statutory reserves, reserves mandated by the company's bylaws, and other reserves.Read the full definition of the concept
Other staff at educational institutions refer to persons employed in other positions than teachers, such as special needs assistants, training secretaries, office staff, canteen staff and cleaners.Read the full definition of the concept
Other vessels than passenger ships, dry cargo ships and tankers, for example, tugboats, icebreakers, pusher lighters, fishing vessels and administrative vessels included in the merchant fleet.Read the full definition of the concept
Outbound tourism comprises the activities of residents of a given country travelling to and staying in places outside their country of residence and outside their usual environment for not more than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business and other purposes.Read the full definition of the concept
Output at basic prices consists of the products which have been produced in the accounting period. Three categories of output are distinguished: market output, output for own final use, and other non-market output. Output is to be recorded and valued when it is generated by the production process.Read the full definition of the concept
Output (market, non-market, ancillary) of environmental protection services is defined in EPEA as the sum of environmental protection market output, environmental protection non-market output and environmental protection ancillary output. Market output is the output disposed of on the market or intended to be disposed of on the market. Non-market output is provided to other units for free, or at prices that are not economically significant. Ancillary output is intended for use for production activities within an enterprise. Environmental protection ancillary output called 'legally acceptable valuation' is measured as the sum of the components 'compensation of employees' and 'intermediate consumption' for the environmental protection ancillary activity.Read the full definition of the concept
The own-account production of housing services by owner-occupiers falls within the production boundary of the European System of Accounts.
The output of services of owner-occupied dwellings should be valued at the estimated value of rental that a tenant would pay for the same accommodation, taking into account factors such as location, neighbourhood amenities, etc. as well as the size and quality of the dwelling itself.
An overnight trip refers to a trip outside the usual environment, during which at least one night is spent in private or collective accommodation either for free or for a charge. The maximum duration of a trip is 12 consecutive months.
In the Finnish Travel survey an overnight trip is a statistical unit to measure the volume of overnight tourism. The duration of a trip is measured by the number of nights spent during it. Overnight travelling by boat/ferry, train or other vehicles is included in the total number of nights spent during the trip.
Hours of overtime worked by employees for which compensation is received either in pay or as time off (the respondent's own opinion).Read the full definition of the concept
The ratio of those working paid overtime hours in the survey week to all employed persons.Read the full definition of the concept
Overtime work is made by an employee in addition to agreement-based working hours. Overtime may be unpaid or paid, for which compensation is received either in pay or as time off.Read the full definition of the concept
In the Household Budget Survey household consumption includes natural products produced and received by the household, such as agricultural, gardening and collected products (berries, mushrooms, fish, etc.). In the questionnaire households are asked about the used amounts of own products, after which they are priced at producer prices.Read the full definition of the concept