12.5.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The statistics on labour disputes include data on all private and public sector labour disputes brought to the attention of Statistics Finland. Employer organisations’ data on labour disputes and labour dispute data collected in other ways are collected in a single database. The resulting database serves as a basis for the preparation of tables according to the selected classifications and volume data. The principal data of the statistics on labour disputes are received annually from the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK). Data are also provided by municipal employers and the state. Statistics Finland also carries out its own data collection on industrial action, and data on labour disputes are collected from the media. In addition, more detailed data are inquired directly from enterprises.

Statistical presentation

The statistics on labour disputes describe the labour disputes organised in Finland by employees or employers.

Statistical population

The statistics on labour disputes include all data on labour disputes in the private sector, the local government sector and central government brought to the attention of Statistics Finland. 

Statistical unit

The statistical unit of the statistics on labour disputes is an employer.

Unit of measure

The statistics on labour disputes cover data on the number of labour disputes and threats of them, the number of the employees involved and the lost working days.

Reference period

The reference period of the statistics on labour disputes is a calendar year. 

Reference area

The statistics on labour disputes cover both the private and public sectors and geographically, the whole of Finland.

Sector coverage

The statistics on labour disputes cover the private and public sectors. The statistics on labour disputes cover labour disputes in sections A to S of the Standard Industrial Classification (TOL 2008).

Time coverage

Data on labour disputes are available from the late 19th century, but exhaustive and classified data are available since 1971. The statistics were subject to an extensive revision in 1971, when their coverage of smaller labour disputes, for instance, improved.

Frequency of dissemination

The final data of the statistics on labour disputes are published once a year, some four months after the end of the statistical reference year.

Concepts

Blockade

Employees of an enterprise direct labour dispute measures to some third party. They refuse to handle the transportations of a specific enterprise, for example.

Labour dispute

Temporary intentional interruption of work by the employee or employer party, refusal to work, slow down or other pressure measures in order to attain some objective.

Lock-out

The employer locks out the workplace and interrupts payment of wages and salaries.

Strike

Employees refuse to work and then they do not usually come to the workplace.

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

Some smaller labour disputes are not included in the statistics, because Statistics Finland is not informed of their existence. The lack of these labour dispute data has relevance mainly on the data on the number of labour disputes. The fact that such data are missing does not have a material effect on the number of employees involved or the lost working days, which are better indicative of the scope of labour disputes.

Timeliness and punctuality

The statistics are published once a year about four months after the end of the reference year.

Timeliness

The data of the statistics on labour disputes are published once a year, some four months after the end of the statistical reference year.

Punctuality

There have been no delays in the release of the data in the statistics on labour disputes if the data that employer organisations collect from their members have been received on time. The data are published on the days indicated in the release calendar.

Data revision - practice

The statistics on labour disputes are not revised.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

In principle, the data in the statistics on labour disputes are comparable between Finland’s different regions and municipalities. Different countries’ statistics on labour disputes may vary greatly. Some countries apply limitations due to which labour disputes of a shorter duration or with less participants remain outside the statistics. The International Labour Organization ILO collects data on labour disputes from all countries in which data are available.

Comparability - over time

Finland has data on labour disputes from a period covering more than a hundred years. The statistics were subject to an extensive revision in 1971, when their coverage of smaller labour disputes improved.

The total number of labour disputes also includes strike threats. Strike threats have been included in Statistics Finland’s data since 2012. The threats are only included in the figures concerning labour disputes, due to which they do not accumulate the number of employees involved or the number of working days lost.

Coherence - cross domain

The statistics on labour disputes published by Statistics Finland are mostly based on material provided by the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK). The data on the number of labour disputes published by Statistics Finland may differ from the numbers released by EK, given that Statistics Finland combine the labour dispute data of different establishments into a single labour dispute. In addition, Statistics Finland’s statistics on labour disputes include data on public sector labour disputes and the labour disputes of non-organised enterprises, provided that Statistics Finland has been made aware of them.

Source data and data collections

Source data

The statistics on labour disputes are based primarily on data that employer organisations collect from their members, mostly on the material of the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK): The data on public sector labour disputes are also based on data collected by employer organisations. Data on the labour disputes of non-organised enterprises are furthermore collected from media sources.

Data collection

The statistics on labour disputes are based primarily on data that employer organisations collect from their members, mostly on the material of EK. EK’s member enterprises are obligated to inform their own association of an existing labour dispute or a labour dispute threatening the enterprise. The enterprises deliver the data to their own member association on the relevant form as soon as possible after good labour relations have become under threat of disruption or have already been disrupted. The member association checks and, when necessary, supplements the data on the form, and forwards them to EK.

Data on the labour disputes of non-organised enterprises are furthermore collected from media sources. The data on public sector labour disputes are based on data collected by employer organisations.

Frequency of data collection

The data for the statistics on labour disputes are collected annually.

Methods

Data compilation

Statistics Finland combines the labour dispute data of different establishments into a single labour dispute. An enterprise’s industry and municipality code, among other things, are also linked to the data, and the reason for a labour dispute is classified separately.

Data validation

The data in the statistics on labour disputes are checked on the enterprise level and any deficiencies in the data are supplemented with data from media sources, for example.

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Social Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics. 

Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.  

Further information: Statistical legislation 

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable. 

Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

Confidentiality - data treatment

When publishing and tabulating the data of the statistics on labour disputes, the threshold rule is used. A key rule of data protection is to avoid publishing statistical data in a form that could reveal the identity of an individual or organisation or an attribute relating to them. 

Only data on lost working days is protected with the threshold value rule, because they constitute sensitive data. Data on the number of labour disputes or the total number of the involved are not protected. The industry-specific tables may contain industries which have been subject to one or two labour disputes, in which case the data on lost working days are protected. Secondary protection is also used when necessary (if an industry has only one primary protection).
 

Release policy

Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service. 

Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland

Data sharing

The data in the statistics on labour disputes are delivered at industry-level detail to the International Labour Organization (ILO) every year.

Accessibility and clarity

Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.

In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.

Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.

Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.

Data revision - policy

Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions. 

The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before. 

Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data. 

Quality assessment

The quality of the statistics on labour disputes is assessed at different stages of the statistical process, and the data to be released are compared to the annual labour dispute statistics of the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK).

Quality assurance

Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The frameworks complement each other. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. 

Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

User access

Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published. 

Further information: Publication principles for statistics

Unless otherwise separately stated in connection with the product, data or service concerned, Statistics Finland is the producer of the data and the owner of the copyright. The terms of use for statistical data. 

Statistical experts

Matti Lahdenmäki
Senior Statistician
029 551 3690

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