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Documentation of statistics Statistics on living conditions

12.5.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The statistics on living conditions describe the living conditions of households and persons by population group on different topics, such as the risk of poverty or social exclusion, perceived health and well-being, economic situation and housing.

Statistical population

The population of the statistics on living conditions comprises private households and their members in Finland at the end of the statistical reference year (31 December).

Excluded from the population are: persons without a postal address, the institutional population (e.g. long-term residents of old people's homes, care institutions, prisons or hospitals), persons permanently resident abroad and persons temporarily resident in Finland. Conscripts are regarded as part of the population in these statistics.

The statistics are based on representative sample data. The sampling frame consists of total data based on the Population Information System of the Digital and Population Data Services Agency and Statistics Finland's population and dwelling data resource. The reference period of the population of the sample data is 31 December.

The sampling frame is formed before the end of the statistical reference year, as a result of which the sampling frame contains slight errors. The sample is checked from the updated total data before the data collection and after that in the interviews, when persons not belonging to the target population in the reference period, so-called over-coverage, are removed from it. There is a small number of sample persons belonging to the so-called under-coverage left outside the sampling frame, which synchronise with the registers at a delay. Excluded from the accepted sample in the interviews are persons temporarily absent from the household, e.g. persons residing abroad for more than a year if their household resident in Finland considers that the person was not part of the household in question during the reference period.

The population for the statistical reference year is revised after the reference period of the statistics approximately three months later in the data of Statistics Finland's statistics on household-dwelling units and the total data of the income distribution statistics. The data are used in the calibration of the accepted sample in the interview of the statistics on living conditions, with which it is made to correspond to the population.
 

Statistical unit

The statistical units of the statistics on living conditions are households and persons.

Unit of measure

The published data of the statistics on living conditions use the following measurement units: euros, %, number of households, number of persons.

Base period

-

Reference period

The data of the statistics on living conditions describe data for the statistical reference year n (whole calendar year and 31 December) and for the collection time of interviews in January to May for the statistical reference year n+1.

Reference area

Regional classifications corresponding to the EU's uniform NUTS classification of regional units (NUTS2, or classification of major regions), “region” and statistical grouping of municipalities are used in the statistics on living conditions.

Sector coverage

The statistics on living conditions cover private households and their members in Finland at the end of the statistical reference year (31 December). The statistics are based on a representative sample survey.

Time coverage

The data cover the years 2003 to 2018. Most of the data are updated annually. Some of the data are updated at set years as a result of annually changing data content.

Frequency of dissemination

The data of the statistics on living conditions are disseminated yearly. Possible revisions are made to the time series in connection with annual releases.

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

The statistics on living conditions are based on a representative sample survey in which data are collected by interviewing households. A large part of the data derives from registers. All subjective data and opinions have been collected with interviews.

The sources of error are sampling error and other error sources are coverage, measurement, non-response and processing errors. The main sources of error in the statistics on living conditions are related to non-response. They are unit and item non-response. The unit non-response is corrected with weighting. Due to the sampling design of the statistics on living conditions (two-phase stratified sampling), the non-response of design weights is first corrected by stratum with the inverse figure of sample persons. After this, the response-corrected weights are scaled to the number of households and the weights are calibrated to correspond with the population’s key known distributions and sums in the total data. Item non-response is related to the data collected from sample persons with interviews, for which a proxy respondent is not allowed in place of the sample person. Item non-response is corrected with separate weights. Differing from standard weighting, weights corrected for non-response are scaled to the number of persons (persons aged 16 or over) when forming these. Similarly, the data used for calibration differ from those used for calculating standard weights. See the methodological description of the statistical survey (Appendix link).

As a result of error sources, result data may contain systematic errors (the measured value of the result variable differs from its correct value). The magnitude of the bias is difficult to estimate with respect to subjective data, the bias and accuracy of estimates are assessed with the help of the standard error of the data.

Timeliness

The data of the statistics on living conditions are released approximately 14 to 17 months from the end of the statistical reference year and approximately 9 to 12 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

Data on the risk of poverty or social exclusion and on households' perceived livelihood are released approximately 15 months and data by target person (especially health and perceived well-being), international comparison data and annually changing additional data approximately 17 months from the end of the statistical reference year.

The data stem from two different reference periods, the interview period and the preceding income reference year. The risk of poverty or social exclusion indicator and its sub-indicators as well as the classifications used in tabulations are from the income reference year. Of the sub-indicators, low income and low work intensity are from the income reference year and severe material deprivation from the time of the interview, but for the sake of uniformity the data are published to describe the income reference year. Other data collected during the interviews, such as perceived health and well-being, are published according to the time of the interview.

TP1

The preliminary data of the statistics on living conditions are released approximately 14 months from the end of the statistical reference year and 9 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

TP2

The final data of the statistics on living conditions are released approximately 17 months from the end of the statistical reference year and 12 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

TP2

The final data of the statistics on living conditions are released approximately 17 months from the end of the statistical reference year and 12 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

Punctuality

The data of the statistics on living conditions are supplied to users punctually in accordance with the release date stated in the release calendar, as preliminary approximately 14 months from the end of the statistical reference year and 9 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

TP3

The data of the statistics on living conditions are supplied to users punctually in accordance with the release date stated in the release calendar, as preliminary approximately 14 months from the end of the statistical reference year and 9 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

TP3

The data are supplied to users punctually in accordance with the release date stated in the release calendar, as preliminary approximately 14 months from the end of the statistical reference year and 9 months from the end of the collection of the data collected with interviews.

Completeness

-

R1_U

-

R1_P

-

Data revision - practice

The preliminary data of the statistics on living conditions become revised for the statistical reference year if the data sources used for the statistics are updated, or there is a need for revision due to detected errors or deficiencies before the final data are published.

Methodological changes to the statistical reference year and the revisions to time series data they cause are planned in advance. The time series is revised if the effect on key result data of the statistics is statistically significant.

A6

No revisions have been made to the statistics on living conditions. Average revision for result indicators: the risk of poverty and social exclusion, perceived health and well-being is 0% in 2003 to 2018.

A6

No revisions have been made to the statistics on living conditions. Average revision for result indicators: the risk of poverty and social exclusion, perceived health and well-being is 0% in 2003 to 2018.

Sampling error

Table. Risk of poverty or social exclusion (%), confidence intervals and standard error in the statistics on living conditions in 2009 to 2018

A1a

-

A1b

-

Non-sampling error

Other sources of error are coverage, measurement, non-response and processing errors.

The main sources of error in the statistics on living conditions are related to non-response. They are unit and item non-response. Unit non-response is corrected with weighting (See 18.5 Data compilation). Due to the sampling design of the statistics on living conditions (two-phase stratified sampling), the non-response of design weights is first corrected by stratum with the inverse figure of sample persons. After this, the response-corrected weights are scaled to the number of households and the weights are calibrated to correspond with the population’s key known distributions and sums in the total data. Item non-response is related to the data collected from sample persons with interviews, for which a proxy respondent is not allowed in place of the sample person. Item non-response is corrected with separate weights. Differing from standard weighting, weights corrected for non-response are scaled to the number of persons (persons aged 16 or over) when forming these. Similarly, the data used for calibration differ from those used for calculating standard weights. See the methodological description of the statistical survey (Appendix link).

The coverage error of the statistics on living conditions is minor (Section 13.3.1.1. Over-coverage - rate). Likewise, the processing error of the statistics compiled annually with an established production process is estimated to be relatively small (Section 13.3.4 Processing error).

Coverage error

The sampling frame consists of total data based on the Population Information System of the Digital and Population Data Services Agency and Statistics Finland's population and dwelling data resource. The reference period of the population of the sample data is 31 December.

The sampling frame is formed before the end of the statistical reference year, as a result of which the sampling frame contains slight errors. The sample is checked from the updated total data before the data collection and after that in the interviews, when persons not belonging to the target population of the statistics in the reference period (31 December), so-called over-coverage, are removed from it. There is a small number of sample persons belonging to the so-called under-coverage left outside the sampling frame, which synchronise with the registers at a delay.

The over-coverage of the sample is checked in the interviews. Excluded from the accepted sample are persons temporarily absent from the household, e.g. persons residing abroad for more than a year if their household resident in Finland considers that the person was not part of the household in question during the reference period.

A2

The over-coverage of the statistics on living conditions was 1.3 per cent of the gross sample (unweighted) in 2018.

Mesurement error

In the statistics on living conditions, the measurement error is primarily connected to data collected with interviews, which is affected by error sources concerning responses, both for the target and the interviewer. The error is estimated to be random for a majority of the data.

Measurement errors in the data collection are prevented with interviewer training and instructions for data collection, as well as questionnaire designing and testing. Automatic checks (outlier and data logicality checks) are included in the form. The data obtained from the data collection are checked and errors are corrected in the statistics.

Non-response error

The unit and item non-responses of the statistics on living conditions are corrected with weighting, which aims to remove the non-response error. See the methodological description of the statistics on living conditions (link).

A4

The unit non-response of the statistics on living conditions was 22.8 per cent of the entire net sample in 2018 (unweighted data). A rotating four-panel design is used in the statistics. Net non-response by panel was 41.8 per cent in the first survey round, 14.0 per cent in the second survey round, 9.9 per cent in the third survey round and 7.1 per cent in the fourth survey round in 2018.

The unit non-response of the statistics on living conditions is corrected with weighting.

A5

The item non-response in the statistics on living conditions is determined based on the non-response of the sample person. Particularly data for which a proxy respondent is not allowed and data are not imputed contain item non-response. These are subjective data and opinions concerning a sample person.

In the statistics on living conditions, item non-response was 6.2 per cent of the approved sample in 2018 (unweighted data). The data concern perceived health. The item non-response of the statistics on living conditions is corrected with weighting.

Processing error

Data processing errors in the statistics on living conditions are minor. The data are processed in the established production process by work phase.

Model assumption error

The sampling design and estimation of the statistics on living conditions are based on established methods. Design-based estimation is used, for which the data selection is model-assisted.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The statistics on living conditions are based on a nationally representative sample. The data are regionally comparable according to the regional classifications (NUTS2, or major region classification, statistical grouping of municipalities) used in the statistics and internationally between the countries of the ESS EU-SILC statistics (EU-SILC, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions).

CC1

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Comparability - over time

Time series data comparable over time are available for the statistics on living conditions annually from 2003 to 2018. The lengths of the time series vary in the statistics. Some of the data are collected and compiled only at set years.

CC2

The time series data of the statistics on living conditions are comparable for the years 2003 to 2018, altogether 15 years in 2018.

Coherence - cross domain

The statistics on living conditions are coherent with the income distribution statistics and the households’ wealth survey. They are compiled in an integrated manner from the same sample data.

The income distribution statistics, the Household Budget Survey and the statistics on households’ assets form a coherent set of statistics.

Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics

The statistics on living conditions are annual statistics.

Coherence -national accounts

The income concepts of the statistics on living conditions and the income distribution statistics are coherent. See income distribution statistics, section 15.3.2 Coherence - national accounts.

Coherence - internal

The statistics on living conditions are internally almost coherent apart from weighting. In addition to the weights (standard weights) calculated as coherent with the ESS EU-SILC statistics, separate weights are used in national statistics for persons aged 16 or over to correct the item non-response of data describing the sample person. The calculation method for separate weights differs from that for standard weights.

Source data and data collections

Source data

The source data for the statistics on living conditions are the data collected with interviews and registers.

Key register sources are:

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  • The Tax Administration's tax database

  • The Social Insurance Institution of Finland's registers of pension insurance, health insurance compensation and rehabilitation, registers of child maintenance allowances, financial aid for students, housing allowances and social assistance

  • The National Institute for Health and Welfare's register of social assistance

  • The register of pension contingency of the Finnish Centre for Pensions

  • Statistics Finland’s Register of Completed Education and Degrees

  • The State Treasury's database on the military injuries indemnity system

  • The Education Fund's data files

  • The Natural Resources Institute Finland’s (LUKE) farm register

  • Statistics Finland's Business Register

  • The Financial Supervisory Authority's data (earnings-related unemployment allowances)


See the methodological description of the statistics on living conditions.

Data collection

The main data collection method for the data collected with the interviews of the statistics on living conditions is a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI). Only a small part of the interviews (around one to two per cent) are collected with a computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Nearly all data on persons' living conditions are inquired by interviewing one member of the household aged 16 or over. The person can be a sample person or that person’s proxy in the household.

Frequency of data collection

The basic data for the statistics on living conditions are collected annually.

A3

In the statistics on living conditions, the share of units included both in the data collection and in administrative sources was around 100 per cent of the sample persons and persons belonging to their households.

Cost and burden

Statistics Finland's statistics on living conditions and income distribution statistics are formed in an integrated manner. A considerable cost burden is caused by data collected from households with interviews. These data are not available with other methods or there are no administrative data sources available for forming them. The response burden is related to the interview data collection.

Methods

Data compilation

Data editing and imputation

The subjective data and opinions compiled from the statistics on living conditions include item non-response. Missing data are not imputed. Instead of imputation, item non-response is corrected with separate weights (see below).

Weighting coefficients

Households and persons whose participation has been approved receive a weighting coefficient with which their data are raised to represent the data of the basic population. The survey data contain three types of weights that are used depending on the population of the data, the data collection unit, that is, concerning who or which household members the data have been collected, and whether a proxy respondent could or could not be used in collecting the data. The data collection units are all household members and the household’s sample person aged 16 or over. Some of the data concerning the sample person may have been collected from a proxy respondent, that is, from a member of the household aged at least 16 responding on behalf of the sample person. Some of the data cannot be collected from a proxy respondent (e.g. data on perceived well-being and health), so the item non-response related to these data has been taken into account in forming the weighting coefficients.

First, design weights are formed for households relying on the probability of the household being included in the sample. Next, a non-response correction is performed for the design weights of the approved sample by multiplying them by the inverse of the share of households having responded acceptably for each stratum. These weights corrected for non-response based on sample level data are calibrated using the CALMAR macro to correspond with the known key distributions and sums of the population. The procedure aims at reducing the bias caused by the selectivity of non-response and produce as exact estimates as possible for the main result variables. In the calibration of the weights for the 2018 material, the following data were used:

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  • Size of household-dwelling unit

  • Age and gender groups of members

  • Level of education of members

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This weighting coefficient is used to produce data concerning the whole household or all members of the household and represent corresponding groups in the population. For data concerning a sample person for which the use of a proxy respondent is allowed, individual weights derived from this weighting coefficient are calculated, with which the data represent persons aged 16 or over belonging to households in the population. The weights are scaled simply by the number of members in the population.

In addition, separate individual weights are used in the publication of subjective data (health, perceived well-being) concerning only the sample person, by means of which the data are generalised to the entire household population aged 16 or over. A proxy respondent cannot be used when collecting these data, for which reason separate weights have been formed for the publication of the data. These take into account not only unit non-response but also item non-response related to personal questions. The design weights on which these weighting coefficients are based have been corrected for non-response taking into account item non-response and scaled to the entire household population aged 16 or over. The non-response corrected design weights have then been calibrated using various key marginal distributions. In the calibration for 2018, these data were:

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  •  Size of household

  • Age and gender groups

  • Level of education

  • Lowest income quintile

  • Socio-economic group

  • Register-based low income

Data validation

Systematic error sources are assessed by comparing estimates with data on the whole population obtained from the total data of the income distribution statistics and registers. Comparisons are conducted annually and information on them can be requested from Statistics Finland.

The validation of income data is described in more detail in the quality description of the income distribution statistics.

Seasonal adjustment

Seasonal adjustment is not used in the statistics on living conditions.

A7

Imputation is not used to correct the non-response of result data of the statistics on living conditions.

Documentation on methodology

The data content of the statistics on living conditions is based on the ESS EU-SILC statistics (EU-SILC, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, Regulation No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council).

The income data used in the classifications are based on data formed for the needs of the income distribution statistics sample data. These income data follow the international recommendations of income distribution statistics:
OECD (2013) OECD Framework for Statistics on the Distribution of Household Income, Consumption and Wealth, OECD Publishing; UNECE (2011) Canberra Group Handbook on Household Income Statistics, Second Edition 2011.

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Social Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the general act of the national statistical service, the Statistics Act (280/2004, amend. 361/2013). Only the necessary data that are not available from administrative data sources are collected from data suppliers. Index series are published so that no individual enterprise's data or development can be deduced from them.

The data content of the statistics on living conditions is based on framework Regulation 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC). The data content collected at set intervals is confirmed by EU Commission regulations implementing the framework Regulation (e.g. statistical reference year 2018: 2018/174).

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is absolutely guaranteed in accordance with the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Personal Data Act (532/1999) and the Act on the Openness of Government activities (621/1999), as well as the requirements of the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Wilful breaching of data protection is punishable.

Confidentiality - data treatment

The processing of the data is limited by user licences to the producers of the statistics. All persons employed by Statistics Finland have signed a pledge of secrecy, where they have obliged to keep secret the data prescribed as confidential by virtue of the Statistics Act or the Act on the Openness of Government Activities.

The compilation of statistics is steered by the Statistics Act (280/2004). Alongside the Statistics Act, the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation EU 2016/679 and the national Data Protection Act are applied to the processing of personal data. Confidentiality of data collected for statistical purposes is decreed in the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999).

In addition, statistics compilation is steered by the EU Regulation on European statistics and Regulations of the EU-SILC (Framework Regulation 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council).

The statistical data on which the statistics on living conditions are based are released to Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union, for the EU-SILC statistics (EU-SILC, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). The statistical data do not contain direct identifiers. In addition, protection measures common to the countries and, where necessary, nation-specific measures, are applied to the data. Eurostat releases data from the EU-SILC statistics for research use upon application. Researchers handling the data sign a pledge of secrecy.

The data of the statistics are combined with the service set of Statistics Finland's income distribution statistics, see income distribution statistics, section 7.2 Confidentiality - data treatment.

Statistical protection methods are described, for example, in the Handbook on Statistical Disclosure Control (2010).

Release policy

Statistics Finland's release calendar lists in advance all the statistical data and publications to be released over the year. The statistical releases of the statistics on living conditions can be found under statistics-specific releases. Statistical data are released on the Internet at 8 am, unless otherwise indicated. The calendar is updated on weekdays. Statistics Finland's release calendar for the coming year is published every year in December.

Data sharing

The statistical data on which the statistics on living conditions are based are used for the international ESS EU-SILC statistics (EU-SILC, Statistics on income and living conditions). Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union, is responsible for compiling statistics on the EU-SILC and for the release of its statistical data for research use. Research use requires an application for licence to use statistical data.

Other

Data on the statistics on living conditions are available as chargeable special compilations, such as table data, through Statistics Finland's research services.

Data collected for statistical purposes must be kept confidential by virtue of Section 24 of the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999). The response data are only used for statistical purposes. The research data are protected in accordance with the data protection regulations of Statistics Finland and responses given by individual households cannot be distinguished from the statistical tables.

Accessibility and clarity

The results of the statistics on living conditions are published in Statistics Finland’s Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) under Living Conditions on the home page of the statistics. The links on the home page lead to statistical releases, free statistical database tables (StatFin) and the description, concepts and definitions of the statistics.

Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union, publishes data from the EU-SILC statistics (EU-SILC, Statistics on income and living conditions) on its own home pages. Statistics Finland publishes international data on its web pages, see products and services, international statistical data.

Micro-data access

The data of the statistics on living conditions are released as anonymised unit-level micro data for scientific research use and statistical surveys through Statistics Finland's research services. The use of micro data is subject to licence.

Data collected for statistical purposes must be kept confidential by virtue of Section 24 of the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999). The response data are only used for statistical purposes. The research data are protected in accordance with the data protection regulations of Statistics Finland and responses given by individual households cannot be distinguished from the statistical tables. According to Section 13 of the Statistics Act (280/2004), Statistics Finland may, on the basis of a separate application for licence to use statistical data, release data for scientific studies and statistical surveys without data enabling direct identification. The Statistics Act prohibits the use of data collected for statistical purposes in an investigation, surveillance, legal proceedings, administrative decision-making or other similar handling of a matter concerning the enterprise. Guidelines 6 February 2020 10 (16).

National data containing data of the statistics on living conditions are released to Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union, for the international, comparative ESS EU-SILC micro data. Eurostat releases anonymised micro data (EU-SILC Users' Database) for scientific research use based on an application for licence to use statistical data. The data obtained through Eurostat include data from countries conducting the EU-SILC survey. Finland’s data are available through Eurostat at a longer time lag than from Statistics Finland. Further information about the ESS EU SILC micro data is available on Eurostat's web pages.

Data revision - policy

The time series data of the statistics on living conditions are revised for the statistical reference year and retrospectively for the time series data if the effect of the corrections on key result data is statistically significant and data sources are available for the revision.

The time series data of the statistics can also be updated with extended data content, such as classifications.

Relevance

The relevance of the statistics on living conditions is evaluated based on feedback received from users, monitoring of the use of statistical data (StatFin tables) and separate data requests.

User needs

-

User satisfaction

-

Quality documentation

The quality documentation of the statistics on living conditions complies with the guidelines of Statistics Finland's Official Statistics of Finland (OSF).

Quality assessment

Quality assessment, see OSF quality criteria and recommendation on quality description.

Quality assurance

When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).

More information about this is available on Statistics Finland's quality management pages.

Every year Statistics Finland conducts statistical auditing that helps to ensure the quality of statistics.

User access

Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland apply, for example, to how and when statistics are published, as well as the confidentiality of data prior to publication. Data are released to all users at the same time. In special cases data can be released before the official release under the so-called embargo principle.

Statistical experts

Kaisa-Mari Okkonen
Senior Statistician
029 551 3408