Environment and Natural Resources

Geographical data

Area, km2, 1.1.2016
Area, total 390 905
Land area 303 900
Fresh water 34 544
Sea water 52 461
Boundaries, km
Sweden 614
Norway 736
Russia 1 340
Limit of territorial waters 1 250
Total 3 940
Greatest length, km
Hanko–Utsjoki 1 157
Greatest width, km
Närpiö–Ilomantsi 542
Highest point, m
Halti  1 324
Longest river, km
Kemijoki  500
Largest lakes, km2
Saimaa 1 393
Päijänne 1 082
Inarijärvi 1 082
Oulujärvi 912
Pielinen 895
Largest islands, km2
a) Sea
Mainland Åland 689
Kemiönsaari 545
b) Inland waters
Soisalo 1 540

Lakes with an area of 500 m2 or more total about 168 000, of which around 57 000 with an area of over one hectare.
Islands with an area of 100 m2 or more total about 187 000.

Sources: National Land Survey of Finland

Finnish Environment Institute

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 15.2.2016

Protected and wilderness areas on 1 January 2016

  Number Area, ha Water, %
Protected areas 10 864 2 099 040 20,5
National parks 39 989 242 18,0
Strict nature reserves 19 153 495 1,9
Mire reserves 170 463 321 2,6
Herb-rich forest reserves 47 1 133 1,0
Old-growth forest reserves 90 9 829 2,9
Other state-owned protected areas 201 127 062 30,0
Protected areas on private land 10 244 319 376 53,5
Protected areas on Åland 54 35 582 92,6
Wilderness reserves 12 1 489 114 7,5

In addition, the Act on the Protection of Rapids protects a total of 53 individual rapids, river portions or catchment areas against power station construction.
Corresponding acts have been passed on the protection of the Ounasjoki and Kyrönjoki rivers.

Sources: Ministry of the Environment

Metsähallitus

ÅSUB

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 18.3.2016

Mean daily temperature (centigrade)

  Helsinki   Sodankylä (Lapland)
   1981–2010 2015  1981–2010 2015
January -3,9 -0,9 -13,5 -14,1
February -4,7 0,9 -12,7 -6,5
March -1,3 2,4 -7,5 -2,3
April 3,9 5,3 -1,3 0,9
May 10,2 9,3 5,3 6,3
June 14,6 13,3 11,6 10,2
July 17,8 16,4 14,5 12,0
August 16,3 17,5 11,7 13,5
September 11,5 13,7 6,2 9,5
October 6,6 6,4 0,1 0,6
November 1,6 5,6 -7,1 -2,5
December -2,0 3,3 -11,7 -8,9

oF = 9/5oC + 32

Source: Finnish Meteorological Institute

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 8.1.2016

Air emissions

  Unit 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 eq. mil. tons . . 71,3 70,0 75,9 68,0 62,4 63,3 59,1
Carbon dioxide 1) mil. tons 54,1 52,6 52,8 59,0 51,7 46,5 47,4 43,4
Sulphur (as SO2) 1 000 t 583 250 81 67 61 51 48 44
Nitrogen oxides 1 000 t 284 299 228 177 162 153 149 140

1) Emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and peat

Source: Environment and Natural Resources, Statistics Finland

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 19.4.2016

Greenhouse gas emissions and removals

  1 000 000 t CO2 equivalent
  Emissions Removals 1)
1990 71,3 -16,0
1991 69,1 -28,7
1992 67,7 -22,6
1993 69,9 -23,3
1994 75,4 -16,3
1995 71,8 -15,3
1996 77,6 -24,3
1997 76,2 -21,1
1998 72,5 -19,4
1999 71,9 -22,3
2000 70,0 -24,3
2001 75,3 -26,0
2002 77,7 -26,5
2003 85,2 -27,0
2004 81,4 -28,4
2005 69,5 -29,4
2006 80,7 -35,7
2007 79,2 -28,0
2008 71,3 -26,8
2009 67,7 -39,5
2010 75,9 -27,1
2011 68,0 -26,7
2012 62,4 -28,3
2013 63,3 -20,3
2014 59,1 -20,8

1) LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry)

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 19.4.2016

 

Main topic: Environment and Natural Resources

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