Published: 28 February 2018

Examinations to detect narcotics use on the rise

According to Statistics Finland's data, the police, customs and border guard used coercive measures 195,800 times in 2017. The number was 1,700 coercive measures (0.9 per cent) lower than one year previously. Good one-quarter of the coercive measures were apprehensions based on the Police Act (taking intoxicated persons into custody). Other types of coercive measures were almost always connected to investigating the guilt of a suspect or ensuring the criminal process. Examinations of state of intoxication in order to detect narcotics use increased by 16.9 per cent.

Coercive measures of the police, customs and border guard in 2008 to 2017

Coercive measures of the police, customs and border guard in 2008 to 2017

In 2017, the police used coercive measures 188,000 times. This is 96 per cent of all coercive measures used. Customs used coercive measures 5,900 times (three per cent) and the border guard 1,800 times (one per cent). The share of customs and the border guard are small in all main coercive measure groups. Customs and the border guard performed close on one-fifth of confiscations.

Coercive measures against freedom

In 2017, a total of 22,900 apprehensions were made, which is 800 cases (3.4 per cent) fewer than in the year before. The number of arrests was 8,800, down by 700 cases (7.6 per cent) from one year earlier. The number of remands was 2,150, which is 200 cases (7.6 per cent) fewer than in 2016 and 5.3 per cent fewer than in 2015. Altogether, 460 travel bans were enforced, which is 27.7 per cent fewer than in 2016 and 22.6 per cent fewer than in 2015.

At the beginning of 2016, a coercive measure concerning detention of foreigners entered into force. In 2017, a total of 1,500 such detentions of foreigners were recorded, which is 37.3 per cent more than one year earlier. The most common reason for the detention of a foreigner was that a foreigner would hinder the preparation and enforcement of decision-making concerning him or her by hiding or running or in some other way. This was the basis for around 1,200 cases. Another common reason for detention was that a foreigner was suspected of a crime. This reason was used around 230 times. Detention of a foreigner usually results in execution of extradition: 1,061 times in 2017. Close on 40 per cent of detentions of foreigners lasted for less than two days. Around 13 per cent of detentions lasted over a month.

The number of intoxicated persons taken into custody has fallen in recent years. The number of intoxicated persons taken into custody was 54,600 in 2017, which is 2,000 cases (3.5 per cent) lower than in 2016. Taking intoxicated persons into custody is a coercive measure based on the Police Act, where the object of the coercive measure is usually not suspected of an offence but the coercive measure is used to ensure the safety of the person or his or her environment.

A majority of coercive measures against freedom were directed at Finnish citizens. Apprehensions based on the Police Act are often taking intoxicated persons into custody, but this group also includes other temporary apprehensions to ensure that domestic or public premises are not invaded. Information on nationality is based on police records.

Coercive measures against freedom by nationality 2017

Nationality Total Apprehension Arrest Remand Detention of a foreigner Prohibition to travel Apprehension based on the Police Act / Persons taken into custody while intoxic
Finland 76,219 18,246 6,976 1,554 0 394 49,049
Estonia 3,015 1,097 258 62 214 2 1,382
Iraq 1,786 602 225 60 235 7 657
Romania 1,148 335 278 99 147 3 286
Russia 1,005 347 150 51 67 12 378
Somalia 797 142 34 3 18 0 600
Sweden 533 144 85 31 4 10 259
Afghanistan 490 137 42 8 87 2 214
Gambia 297 138 33 8 94 1 23
Lithuania 268 78 74 43 11 1 61
Latvia 261 100 28 11 10 0 112
Belarus 235 100 53 9 51 0 22
Georgia 217 84 43 15 53 0 22
Poland 207 53 24 6 8 1 115
Marocco 202 74 26 10 50 1 41
Foreign country unknown 197 63 14 10 13 0 97
Without nationality 178 70 13 2 28 2 63
Bulgaria 172 51 39 8 17 0 57
Iran 163 47 37 18 8 7 46
Algeria 148 57 16 7 34 1 33
Nigeria 144 60 15 7 50 2 10
Turkey 144 60 16 4 28 1 35
Ukraine 138 53 24 2 10 1 48
Syria 116 36 15 5 7 0 53
Albania 108 35 24 19 25 0 5
Other 2,137 667 237 91 210 14 918

Reason for ending an apprehension, arrest and detention of a foreigner 2016 and 2017

Reason for ending 2016 2017
Total 34,275 33,154
Apprehension or arrest, total 33,189 31,663
-Free 27,009 25,569
-Sent 4,089 3,978
-Change of measure 539 502
-Deceased 2 1
-Deportation 18 29
-Extradition 1,040 1,168
-Turned back 26 25
-Escaped 5 5
-Transfer 461 386
Detentions of foreigners, total 1,086 1,491
-Execution of extradition 815 1,061
-Execution of a removal order 46 62
-Preconditions for detention no longer exist for other reasons 164 290
-Detention of a foreigner is still valid 61 78

Other coercive measures

At the beginning of 2014, new coercive measures came into force: search of data contained in a device and search of premises. A search of data contained in a device refers to a search directed to the data content contained in a computer, a terminal end device or in another corresponding technical device or information system. In 2017, altogether 5,900 searches of data contained in a device were performed, which is 2.4 per cent more than in 2016. A search of premises refers to a search conducted elsewhere than in a public place but not a domicile. Searches of premises numbered 6,800, most of which were carried out to find an object or property to be confiscated. Compared with the previous year, 7.6 per cent more searches of premises were performed.

The number of bodily searches and physical examinations and possible confiscations related to them increased by 4.5 per cent from the previous year. Their number was 29,500 in 2017. Physical examinations were done to, e.g. determine the DNA profile of a suspect. Confiscations and house searches possibly made in their connection numbered 37,800, which was 500 cases (1.2 per cent) lower than in the year before. The number of confiscations and house searches has decreased considerably compared to 2013 as part of them are now recorded as searches of premises or searches of data contained in a device.

The number of enforced restraining orders continued to fall. Altogether, 1,530 restraining orders were enforced in 2017, which is 3.6 per cent fewer than one year earlier and 11.3 per cent fewer than in 2015.

A total of 25,200 coercive measures were directed to women, being 12.9 per cent of all coercive measures. Women's shares were small in all types of coercive measures. Of the coercive measures directed to women, 31.8 per cent were taking intoxicated persons into custody and 14.3 per cent were physical examinations and confiscations. Close on eight per cent of coercive measures were not directed to a person but, for example, to legal persons or premises.

Examinations to detect narcotics use have increased

In all, 7,400 examinations of state of intoxication with a precision breathalyser were recorded in 2017, which was 400 cases (5.4 per cent) fewer than in 2016. The number of examinations of state of intoxication with a blood test was 12,500 in 2017, which was 800 cases (6.8 per cent) more than in 2016. Examinations of state of intoxication in order to detect narcotics use increased by 16.9 per cent and examinations to determine the blood alcohol level declined by 1.3 per cent from 2015.

Investigations of drunken driving in 2016 and 2017

Investigation/year 2016 2017
Breath alcohol 7,790 7,369
Request to examine state of intoxication 11,662 12,456
Of which    
...Blood alcohol 6,576 6,493
...Narcotics 6,555 7,665
...Consumption after driving 1,461 1,365
...Theoretical statement on state of intoxication 199 192

Reason for apprehension leading to examination of state of intoxication and vehicle 2017

  Total Other reason Stop check Informing Abnormal driving style Traffic accident Other traffic infraction Other offence Speeding
Total 19,825 5,206 4,292 4,025 1,985 1,812 1,034 895 576
Passenger car 16,845 4,542 3,570 3,424 1,694 1,533 868 699 515
Van 1,106 253 342 232 78 83 53 42 23
Moped 659 149 83 138 125 68 58 33 5
Water transport 316 85 137 46 21 11 4 4 8
Motorcycle 273 49 44 38 26 58 18 20 20
Lorry, truck 257 54 79 66 21 14 11 8 4
Other vehicle 117 23 12 30 12 22 8 9 1
Tractor, earth-mover, grader 87 15 10 35 4 11 6 6 0
Not drunken driving 82 14 1 3 0 0 0 64 0
Snowmobile 49 13 6 6 4 9 8 3 0
Bus 10 4 1 4 0 1 0 0 0
Special vehicle 10 2 5 3 0 0 0 0 0
Pedestrian 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
Bicycle 5 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 0

The statistics on Offences known to the police and on Coercive measures were combined in March 2015. Data released prior to that can be found on the old home pages of the statistics. The web pages of the statistics on Offences known to the police: http://www.tilastokeskus.fi/til/polrik/index_en.html and of the statistics on Coercive measures: http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/pkei/index_en.html


Source: Statistics on offences and coercive measures 2017. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kimmo Haapakangas 029 551 3252, rikos@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma

Publication in pdf-format (244.4 kB)

Tables

Tables in databases

Appendix tables


Updated 28.2.2018

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Statistics on offences and coercive measures [e-publication].
ISSN=2342-9178. Coercive measures 2017. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 21.9.2018].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/rpk/2017/14/rpk_2017_14_2018-02-28_tie_001_en.html